Eight patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis were diagnosed and treated at our clinic between February 1991 and February 1993. Five of these were contact lens wearers, two had suffered recent corneal trauma and one had recently undergone penetrating keratoplasty. The diagnoses were based on both culture and histological examination of biopsy material in three cases, on culture alone in two cases and on histological examination alone in three cases. In all but one primary treatment was Propamidine isethionate and Neomycin/Polymyxin B topically and Ketoconazole orally. Because of poor healing three patients additionally received Paromomycin and Miconazole or Clotrimazol topically; two of these were further treated with Polyhexamethylene biguanide topically. The interval from initial symptoms to accurate diagnoses varied from one to eleven months. In one patient the eye could not be saved; in the remaining patients visual acuity after healing ranged from hand movements to 1.0.
The Skaraborg Hypertension Project was undertaken in 1977-1981, and 1428 male and 1812 female hypertensives aged 40-69 years were involved at hypertension out-patient clinics in primary health care. Their long-term risk of acute myocardial infarction during a follow-up of 8.3 years was compared to that of age- and sex-matched controls drawn from the census register at the beginning of surveillance and to normotensive untreated controls identified in a population survey in 1977. Relative risks (with a 95% confidence interval) for acute myocardial infarction morbidity compared to the population was 0.99 (0.78, 1.25) in men and 1.36 (0.95, 1.94) in women. Corresponding figures for acute myocardial infarction mortality were 0.97 (0.68, 1.38) and 1.15 (0.67, 1.99). With normotensive controls used as reference and adjusting for smoking habits and body mass index, the relative risks for acute myocardial infarction morbidity were 1.48 (1.12, 1.98) in men and 2.34 (1.43, 3.85) in women, and for acute myocardial infarction mortality 1.66 (1.07, 2.57) and 1.71 (0.84, 3.48), respectively. Treated hypertension is a weak risk factor for acute myocardial infarction in unselected hypertensive patients.
Although a majority of patients with hypertension require a multidrug therapy, this is rarely considered when measuring adherence from refill data. Moreover, investigating the association between refill non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy (AHT) and elevated blood pressure (BP) has been advocated.
Identify factors associated with non-adherence to AHT, considering the multidrug therapy, and investigate the association between non-adherence to AHT and elevated BP.
A retrospective cohort study including patients with hypertension, identified from a random sample of 5025 Swedish adults. Two measures of adherence were estimated by the proportion of days covered method (PDC=80%): (1) Adherence to any antihypertensive medication and, (2) adherence to the full AHT regimen. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate the association between sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education, income), clinical factors (user profile, number of antihypertensive medications, healthcare use, cardiovascular comorbidities) and non-adherence. Moreover, the association between non-adherence (long-term and a month prior to BP measurement) and elevated BP was investigated.
Non-adherence to any antihypertensive medication was higher among persons
Cites: Am Heart J. 2014 Jan;167(1):51-58.e524332142
We report a nosocomial outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 infection at the general hospital, Värnamo, Sweden. From December 1990 to February 1991, 28 patients and 3 staff fell ill with pneumonia and 3 died. L. pneumophila sg 1 together with several other Legionellae were isolated from the hot water supply to 17 of 20 hospital wards, probably being spread by aerosolization via shower nozzles. Raising the hospital's hot water temperature from 45 degrees C to 65 degrees C, together with heat disinfection of the shower equipment, arrested the outbreak within a week. Keeping the hot water temperature > or = 60 degrees C without chlorination eliminated L. pneumophila from > 75% of the wards. During a period of 2 years after the outbreak we have diagnosed only 1 case of nosocomial legionellosis at the hospital despite an active surveillance program.
Anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation in combination with acute myocardial infarction influences long-term outcome: a prospective cohort study from the Register of Information and Knowledge About Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA).
BACKGROUND: The American and European guidelines do not agree with regard to antithrombotic treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), thus causing uncertainty among physicians. We investigated the prescription of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients discharged alive with AF after an AMI and the influence of OAC treatment on 1-year mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective cohort study using data from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) on patients admitted to the coronary care units of 72 Swedish hospitals from 1995 to 2002. A total of 6182 patients discharged alive with first registry-recorded AMI and AF on discharge ECG were included. One-year mortality data were obtained from the Swedish National Cause of Death Register. Only 30% (n=1848) of the 6182 patients with AF were prescribed OAC. At 1 year, the unadjusted mortality was 31% (1183 deaths) in the platelet-inhibitors only group and 22% (414 deaths) in the OAC-treated group. In Cox regression analysis with adjustment for confounding factors, OAC treatment was associated with a reduction in 1-year mortality (relative risk 0.73; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.86; P
Comment In: Circulation. 2005 Nov 22;112(21):3212-416301351
Because frequent seizures constitute a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), the treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may play a role for the occurrence of SUDEP. We used data from routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to study the association between various aspects of AED treatment and the risk of SUDEP.
A nested case-control study was based on a cohort consisting of 6,880 patients registered in the Stockholm County In Ward Care Register with a diagnosis of epilepsy. Fifty-seven SUDEP cases, and 171 controls, living epilepsy patients, were selected from the cohort. Clinical data including data on TDM were collected through medical record review.
The relative risk (RR) of SUDEP was 3.7 (95% CI, 1.0-13.1) for outpatients who had no TDM compared with those who had one to three TDMs during the 2 years of observation. RR was 9.5 (1.4-66.0) if carbamazepine (CBZ) plasma levels at the last TDM were above and not within the common target range (20-40 microM). High CBZ levels were associated with a higher risk in patients receiving polytherapy and in those with frequent dose changes. Although the subgroup of patients with high CBZ levels was small (six cases of 33 with CBZ therapy), and the result should be interpreted with caution, no similar associations were demonstrated for phenytoin plasma levels and risk of SUDEP. No association was found between SUDEP risk and within-patient variation in AED levels over time.
Polytherapy, frequent dose changes, and high CBZ levels as identified risk factors for SUDEP all point to the risks associated with an unstable severe epilepsy. It is unclear whether high CBZ levels per se represent a risk factor or just reflect other unidentified aspects of a severe epilepsy. Our results, however, prompt further detailed analyses of the possible role of AEDs in SUDEP in larger cohorts and suggest that reasonable monitoring of the drug therapy may be useful to reduce risks.
To explore the association of HbA1c and educational level with risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
A cohort of 32 871 patients with Type 2 diabetes aged 35 years and older identified by extracting data from electronic patient records for all patients who had a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes and had glucose-lowering agents prescribed between 1999 and 2009 at 84 primary care centres in Sweden. Associations of mean HbA1c levels and educational level with risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality were analysed.
The associations of HbA1c with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were J-shaped, with the lowest risk observed for cardiovascular mortality at an HbA1c level of 51 mmol/mol (6.8%) for subjects on oral agents and 56 mmol/mol (7.3%) in insulin-treated patients. The lowest risk observed for all-cause mortality was at an HbA1c level of 51 mmol/mol (6.8%) for subjects on oral agents and 56 mmol/mol (7.3%) in insulin-treated patients. There was an increased risk for cardiovascular death [hazard ratio 1.6 (1.2-2.1), P = 0.0008] at the lowest HbA1c decile for subjects in the low education category. For subjects with higher education there was no evident J curve for cardiovascular death [hazard ratio 1.2 (0.8-1.6), P = 0.3873].
Our results lend support to the recent American Diabetes Association/ European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement that emphasizes the importance of additional factors, including the propensity for hypoglycaemia, which should influence HbA1c targets and treatment choices for individual patients. (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 01121315).
Cites: Lancet. 2009 May 23;373(9677):1765-7219465231
Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a highly lethal disease. Available data support the use of corticosteroids in high-income countries, but the effect on mortality is still controversial. The effects of corticosteroids on mortality and sequelae were evaluated in the national Swedish quality registry. In total, during 1995-2014 1746 adults with ABM were included, of whom 989 were treated with corticosteroids (betamethasone, n = 766; dexamethasone, n = 248; methylprednisolone, n = 2), 498 were not given corticosteroids and in 259 patients data for corticosteroids were missing. Fatal outcome was observed in 8.9% of the patients in the corticosteroid-treated group vs. 17.9% in the non-corticosteroid-treated group (p
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of maternal antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment on pregnancy duration, birth weight, body length, head circumference, and intrauterine growth in infants exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs in Sweden between 1973-1997, with 963 singleton infants. METHODS: Data collected from (a) 1973-1981 (record linkage between a hospital discharge register and a medical birth register); (b) 1984-1995 (prospectively collected information in one defined catchment area with two delivery hospitals); and (c) 1995-1997 (medical birth register data). Observed numbers of infants below a defined size for body measurements compared with expected numbers calculated from all births in Sweden after stratification for year of birth, maternal age, parity, and education or smoking habits in early pregnancy. Standard deviation scores estimated with same stratification procedures. RESULTS: Fraction of monotherapy exposures increased from approximately 40% to approximately 90% from 1973 to 1997. Significantly increased numbers of infants with small body measurements found in exposed group. Negative influence on body dimensions decreased over time. More marked effects found in infants exposed to polytherapy. In monotherapy, only infants exposed to carbamazepine consistently showed reduction in body dimensions. Significant effect on gestational age in girls and on number of small for gestational age (