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344 records – page 1 of 35.

ABCG2/BCRP decreases the transfer of a food-born chemical carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in perfused term human placenta.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92634
Source
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 15;232(2):210-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2008
Author
Myllynen Päivi
Kummu Maria
Kangas Tiina
Ilves Mika
Immonen Elina
Rysä Jaana
Pirilä Rauna
Lastumäki Anni
Vähäkangas Kirsi H
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, 90014, Oulu, Finland. paivi.myllynen@oulu.fi
Source
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 15;232(2):210-7
Date
Oct-15-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters - physiology
Carcinogens - metabolism - toxicity
Cell Line, Tumor
Drug Resistance, Multiple - physiology
Female
Food - toxicity
Humans
Imidazoles - metabolism - toxicity
Maternal-Fetal Exchange - physiology
Neoplasm Proteins - physiology
Perfusion - methods
Placenta - drug effects - metabolism
Pregnancy
Abstract
We have studied the role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in fetal exposure to carcinogens using 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) a known substrate for ABC transporters as a model compound. In perfusion of human term placenta, transfer of (14)C-PhIP (2 microM) through the placenta resulted in fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio (FM ratio) of 0.72+/-0.09 at 6 h. The specific ABCG2 inhibitor KO143 increased the transfer of (14)C-PhIP from maternal to fetal circulation (FM ratio 0.90+/-0.08 at 6 h, p
PubMed ID
18680760 View in PubMed
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ABCG2 polymorphism markedly affects the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150732
Source
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Aug;86(2):197-203
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2009
Author
J E Keskitalo
O. Zolk
M F Fromm
K J Kurkinen
P J Neuvonen
M. Niemi
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Aug;86(2):197-203
Date
Aug-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters - genetics
Adult
Anticholesteremic Agents - pharmacokinetics
Area Under Curve
Cross-Over Studies
Drug Resistance, Multiple
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Finland
Fluorobenzenes - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Genotype
Heptanoic Acids - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - pharmacokinetics
Linear Models
Male
Neoplasm Proteins - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Pyrimidines - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Pyrroles - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Reference Values
Sulfonamides - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Abstract
The ABCG2 c.421C>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was determined in 660 healthy Finnish volunteers, of whom 32 participated in a pharmacokinetic crossover study involving the administration of 20 mg atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. The frequency of the c.421A variant allele was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.1-11.3%). Subjects with the c.421AA genotype (n = 4) had a 72% larger mean area under the plasma atorvastatin concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) than individuals with the c.421CC genotype had (n = 16; P = 0.049). In participants with the c.421AA genotype, the rosuvastatin AUC(0-infinity) was 100% greater than in those with c.421CA (n = 12) and 144% greater than in those with the c.421CC genotype. Also, those with the c.421AA genotype showed peak plasma rosuvastatin concentrations 108% higher than those in the c.421CA genotype group and 131% higher than those in the c.421CC genotype group (P
PubMed ID
19474787 View in PubMed
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Alaska sentinel surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates from Alaska native persons, 1999-2003.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83379
Source
Helicobacter. 2006 Dec;11(6):581-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Bruce Michael G
Bruden Dana L
McMahon Brian J
Hennessy Thomas W
Reasonover Alisa
Morris Julie
Hurlburt Debby A
Peters Helen
Sacco Frank
Martinez Patrick
Swenson Michael
Berg Douglas E
Parks Debra
Parkinson Alan J
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA. zwa8@cdc.gov
Source
Helicobacter. 2006 Dec;11(6):581-8
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Amoxicillin - pharmacology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
Biopsy
Clarithromycin - pharmacology
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Female
Helicobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - pathology
Helicobacter pylori - drug effects
Humans
Male
Metronidazole - pharmacology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Population Groups
Sentinel Surveillance
Stomach - microbiology - pathology
Tetracycline - pharmacology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Alaska have demonstrated elevated proportions of antimicrobial resistance among Helicobacter pylori isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed H. pylori data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s sentinel surveillance in Alaska from July 1999 to June 2003 to determine the proportion of culture-positive biopsies from Alaska Native persons undergoing routine upper-endoscopy, and the susceptibility of H. pylori isolates to metronidazole [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 8 g metronidazole/mL), clarithromycin (MIC > or = 1), tetracycline (MIC > or = 2) and amoxicillin (MIC > or = 1)] using agar dilution. RESULTS: Nine-hundred sixty-four biopsy specimens were obtained from 687 participants; 352 (51%) patients tested culture positive. Mean age of both culture-positive and culture-negative patients was 51 years. Metronidazole resistance was demonstrated in isolates from 155 (44%) persons, clarithromycin resistance from 108 (31%) persons, amoxicillin resistance from 8 (2%) persons, and 0 for tetracycline resistance. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance varied by geographic region. Female patients were more likely than male subjects to show metronidazole resistance (p
PubMed ID
17083381 View in PubMed
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[Aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci a new bacterial hazard].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202302
Source
Lakartidningen. 1999 Apr 7;96(14):1694-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-7-1999
Author
A. Melhus
Author Affiliation
Kliniskt mikrobiologiska laboratoriet, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmö. asa.melhus@mikrobiol.mas.lu.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 1999 Apr 7;96(14):1694-5
Date
Apr-7-1999
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aminoglycosides
Anti-Bacterial Agents - administration & dosage
Cross Infection - drug therapy - microbiology - prevention & control
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Drug Resistance, Multiple
Enterococcus - drug effects - genetics - pathogenicity
Enterococcus faecalis - drug effects - genetics - pathogenicity
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Infection Control
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Virulence
Abstract
Enterococci are common causative agents in a broad range of human infections. Although formerly considered to be of low virulence, in recent years they have emerged as important pathogens, particularly in the hospital environment. Enterococci are not only intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics, but are also characterised by a potent and unique ability to exchange genetic material. With the increasing prevalence of strains resistant to ampicillin, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides, serious therapeutic difficulties have become more common. Epidemiological aspects, the mechanisms of action, the detection of antibiotic resistance, and the situation of enterococci in Sweden are discussed in the article.
PubMed ID
10222683 View in PubMed
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Analysis of 3789 in- and outpatient Escherichia coli isolates from across Canada--results of the CANWARD 2007-2009 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136687
Source
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011 Mar;69(3):314-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens
Patricia J Simner
Kevin R Forward
Franil Tailor
Heather J Adam
Melanie Decorby
James Karlowsky
Daryl J Hoban
George G Zhanel
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, St. Boniface General Hospital/Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2H 2A6. plagacewiens@sbgh.mb.ca
Source
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011 Mar;69(3):314-9
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial - genetics
Escherichia coli - drug effects - genetics - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - drug therapy - microbiology
Female
Geography
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inpatients
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Outpatients
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Urinary Tract Infections - drug therapy - microbiology
beta-Lactamases - metabolism
Abstract
Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated pathogen in the Canadian Ward Surveillance Study 2007-2009 (3789 isolates). Susceptibility to cefazolin (34.1%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.8%), ciprofloxacin (78.4%), and levofloxacin (78.8%) was lowest. Susceptibility was above 90% for meropenem (100%), tigecycline (99.9%), piperacillin-tazobactam (97.6%), nitrofurantoin (96.9%), ceftazidime (95.6%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (94.9%), ceftriaxone (94.1%), cefoxitin (92.3%), and gentamicin (90.8%). Over the study period, there was a significant reduction in susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanate and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for urinary tract isolates. Inpatient status was associated with greater resistance to nearly all antimicrobials including greater multidrug resistance (MDR). Increasing age was associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, and MDR. Female gender was associated with susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and nitrofurantoin. In conclusion, greater antimicrobial resistance and MDR in E. coli were observed in inpatients, males, and with increasing age. The deterioration of susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole continues with the greatest reduction in urinary isolates. Significant regional differences in resistance rates were apparent.
PubMed ID
21353959 View in PubMed
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[An epidemic of bullous impetigo in the municipality of Austevoll in the year 2002]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30578
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 Sep 25;123(18):2557-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-25-2003
Author
Sverre Rørtveit
Guri Rørtveit
Author Affiliation
Kommunelegekontoret, 5399 Bekkjarvik. sverre.rortveit@austevoll.kommune.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 Sep 25;123(18):2557-60
Date
Sep-25-2003
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Comparative Study
Disease Outbreaks
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
English Abstract
Fusidic Acid - therapeutic use
Humans
Impetigo - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Staphylococcal Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Staphylococcus aureus - genetics - immunology - pathogenicity
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Rising numbers of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fucidic acid have been seen in Norway over the last few years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present a population-based cohort study of an epidemic in an island community in western Norway with approximately 4450 people. The district's doctors agreed upon guidelines for regimes of antibiotic treatment; taking specimens for bacteriological examination was made routine procedure. The patients included in the study were identified from all patient files from all consultations with all doctors in the district. Clinical, therapeutical and bacteriological variables were registered. A comparison with the present Norwegian guidelines developed by a conference of experts is made. RESULTS: 108 patients were diagnosed as having bullous impetigo (2.4% of the population). Bacteriological swabs were taken from 95 (88%) patients. Staphylococcus aureuswas the bacteriologic aetiology in 79 (83%) of these and were found to be resistant to fusidic acid in 67 (85%) isolates. DISCUSSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that the rising numbers of impetigo might be caused by a clone of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to fusidic acid.
PubMed ID
14714041 View in PubMed
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An outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a burn unit: risk factors for acquisition and management.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190091
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 May;23(5):261-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
Andrew E Simor
Mark Lee
Mary Vearncombe
Linda Jones-Paul
Clare Barry
Manuel Gomez
Joel S Fish
Robert C Cartotto
Robert Palmer
Marie Louie
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, North York, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 May;23(5):261-7
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acinetobacter Infections - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Acinetobacter baumannii
Blood Component Transfusion - adverse effects
Burn Units
Burns - complications
Case-Control Studies
Cross Infection - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Environmental Monitoring - standards
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Hand Disinfection - standards
Hospitals, Teaching
Housekeeping, Hospital - standards
Humans
Hydrotherapy - adverse effects
Infection Control - methods
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
To describe the investigation and management of an outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii and to determine risk factors for acquisition of the organism.
A 14-bed regional burn unit in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital.
Case-control study with multivariate analysis of potential risk factors using logistic regression analysis. Surveillance cultures were obtained from the hospital environment, from noninfected patients, and from healthcare providers.
A total of 31 (13%) of 247 patients with acute burn injuries acquired multiresistant A. baumannii between December 1998 and March 2000; 18 (58%) of the patients were infected. The organism was recovered from the hospital environment and the hands of healthcare providers. Significant risk factors for acquisition of multiresistant A. baumannii were receipt of blood products (odds ratio [OR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 3.4 to 34.4; P
PubMed ID
12026151 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with increased risk of patient death in an intensive care unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188915
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(8):441-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Geir Bukholm
Tone Tannaes
Anne Britt Bye Kjelsberg
Nils Smith-Erichsen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Molecular Biology, Akershus University Hospital, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(8):441-6
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Cluster analysis
Cross Infection - mortality - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Hospital Mortality
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Intensive Care Units
Logistic Models
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Pseudomonas Infections - mortality - prevention & control
Risk factors
Water Microbiology
Abstract
To investigate an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an intensive care unit (ICU).
Epidemiologic investigation, environmental assessment, and ambidirectional cohort study.
A secondary-care university hospital with a 10-bed ICU.
All patients admitted to the ICU receiving ventilator treatment from December 1, 1999, to September 1, 2000.
An outbreak in an ICU with multidrug-resistant isolates of P aeruginosa belonging to one amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP)-defined genetic cluster was identified, characterized, and cleared. Molecular typing of bacterial isolates with AFLP made it possible to identify the outbreak and make rational decisions during the outbreak period. The outbreak included 19 patients during the study period. Infection with bacterial isolates belonging to the AFLP cluster was associated with reduced survival (odds ratio, 5.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 24.26). Enhanced barrier and hygiene precautions, cohorting of patients, and altered antibiotic policy were not sufficient to eliminate the outbreak. At the end of the study period (in July), there was a change in the outbreak pattern from long (December to June) to short (July) incubation times before colonization and from primarily tracheal colonization (December to June) to primarily gastric or enteral July) colonization. In this period, the bacterium was also isolated from water taps.
Complete elimination of the outbreak was achieved after weekly pasteurization of the water taps of the ICU and use of sterile water as a solvent in the gastric tubes.
PubMed ID
12186209 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of multidrug-resistant, quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33090
Source
N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 4;341(19):1420-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-4-1999
Author
K. Mølbak
D L Baggesen
F M Aarestrup
J M Ebbesen
J. Engberg
K. Frydendahl
P. Gerner-Smidt
A M Petersen
H C Wegener
Author Affiliation
Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 4;341(19):1420-5
Date
Nov-4-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abattoirs
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Drug Resistance, Multiple
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Quinolones
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Salmonella typhimurium - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Swine
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Food-borne salmonella infections have become a major problem in industrialized countries. The strain of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium known as definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is usually resistant to five drugs: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. An increasing proportion of DT104 isolates also have reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. METHODS: The Danish salmonella surveillance program determines the phage types of all typhimurium strains from the food chain, and in the case of suspected outbreaks, five-drug-resistant strains are characterized by molecular methods. All patients infected with five-drug-resistant typhimurium are interviewed to obtain clinical and epidemiologic data. In 1998, an outbreak of salmonella occurred, in which the strain of typhimurium DT104 was new to Denmark. We investigated this outbreak and report here our findings. RESULTS: Until 1997, DT104 infections made up less than 1 percent of all human salmonella infections. The strain isolated from patients in the first community outbreak of DT104 in Denmark, in 1998 was resistant to nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. The outbreak included 25 culture-confirmed cases. Eleven patients were hospitalized, and two died. The molecular epidemiology and data from patients indicated that the primary source was a Danish swine herd. Furthermore, the investigation suggested reduced clinical effectiveness of treatment with fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation of an outbreak of DT104 documented the spread of quinolone-resistant bacteria from food animals to humans; this spread was associated with infections that were difficult to treat. Because of the increase in quinolone resistance in salmonella, the use of fluoroquinolones in food animals should be restricted.
Notes
Comment In: N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 2;342(9):66110702060
PubMed ID
10547404 View in PubMed
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344 records – page 1 of 35.