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[Antimycotic sensitivity of yeast-like fungi isolated from HIV-infected patients]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83766
Source
Mikrobiol Z. 2007 May-Jun;69(3):37-43
Publication Type
Article
Author
Polishchuk O I
Pokas O V
Vialykh Zh E
Vasylenko L H
Koltukova N V
Source
Mikrobiol Z. 2007 May-Jun;69(3):37-43
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - microbiology
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology
Drug Resistance, Fungal
HIV Infections - microbiology
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Mycoses - microbiology
Yeasts - drug effects - isolation & purification
Abstract
Sensitivity of museum and fresh strains to antimycotics has been determined. 5-Fluorocytosine (86.2%) and amphotericine B (93.2%) were highly effective as to results on test-systems, considerable part of strains was resistant to fluconasole (93.2%) and itraconasole (62.1%). Due to disk-diffusion method it was determined that nystatine was an effective inhibitor of growth of 100% of all species cultures, amphotericine B--93.3%, resistance to clotrimasole was 56.6%. During the last three years the part of polyresistant strains of yeastlike fungi exceeds considerably the critical level. A comparison of antibiotic sensitivity of C. albicans representatives and strains of non-albicans species did not manifest cardinal differences.
PubMed ID
17682529 View in PubMed
Less detail

Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of patients with chronic diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115804
Source
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jul;68(7):1497-504
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Yanan Zhao
Christen R Stensvold
David S Perlin
Maiken C Arendrup
Author Affiliation
Public Health Research Institute Center, UMDNJ-NJMS, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.
Source
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jul;68(7):1497-504
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology
Aspergillus fumigatus - drug effects - isolation & purification
Azoles - pharmacology
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - genetics
Denmark
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Female
Fungal Proteins - genetics
Humans
Infant
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pulmonary Aspergillosis - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has been increasing. We explored the A. fumigatus azole resistance profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from Danish patients examined for aspergillosis.
A total of 94 BAL samples from 87 patients were evaluated by galactomannan (GM) test and A. fumigatus CYP51A profiling by PCR.
Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 27/48 (56.3%) cultured samples, including 23 A. fumigatus with one resistant strain (4.3%). Samples were classified into GM-positive (=3.0), GM-intermediate (0.5 to
Notes
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PubMed ID
23463213 View in PubMed
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Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Denmark: a laboratory-based study on resistance mechanisms and genotypes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279620
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Jun;22(6):570.e1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
R H Jensen
F. Hagen
K M T Astvad
A. Tyron
J F Meis
M C Arendrup
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Jun;22(6):570.e1-9
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology
Aspergillosis - microbiology
Aspergillus fumigatus - drug effects - genetics - isolation & purification
Azoles - pharmacology
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - genetics
Denmark
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Environmental Microbiology
Fungal Proteins - genetics
Genotype
Genotyping Techniques
Humans
Microbiological Techniques
Retrospective Studies
Tubulin - genetics
Abstract
Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus originating from the environment as well as induced during therapy are continuously emerging in Danish clinical settings. We performed a laboratory-based retrospective study (2010-2014) of azole resistance and genetic relationship of A. fumigatus at the national mycology reference laboratory of Denmark. A total of 1162 clinical and 133 environmental A. fumigatus isolates were identified by morphology, thermotolerance and/or ß-tubulin sequencing. Screening for azole resistance was carried out using azole agar, and resistant isolates were susceptibility tested by the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) E.Def 9.2 reference method and CYP51A sequenced. Genotyping was performed for outbreak investigation and, when appropriate, short tandem repeat Aspergillus fumigatus microsatellite assay. All 133 environmental A. fumigatus isolates were azole susceptible. However, from 2010 to 2014, there was an increasing prevalence of azole resistance (from 1.4 to 6% isolates (p 50% of the azole resistance mechanisms. Among 184 Danish A. fumigatus isolates, 120 unique genotypes were identified and compared to a collection of 1822 international genotypes. Seven (5.8%) Danish genotypes were shared between isolates within Denmark but with different origin, 19 (15.8%) were shared with foreign genotypes, and two (11.8%) of 17 genotypes of isolates carrying the TR34/L98H resistance mechanisms were identical to two Dutch TR34/L98H isolates. Our findings underlines the demand for correct identification and susceptibility testing of clinical mould isolates. Furthermore, although complex, genotyping supported the hypotheses regarding clonal expansion and the potential of a single origin for the TR34/L98H clone.
PubMed ID
27091095 View in PubMed
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Candidaemia in Sweden: a nationwide prospective observational survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117128
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Apr;19(4):E218-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
J. Ericsson
E. Chryssanthou
L. Klingspor
A G Johansson
P. Ljungman
E. Svensson
J. Sjölin
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Västmanland Hospital, Västerås, Sweden. jesper.ericsson@ltv.se
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Apr;19(4):E218-21
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology
Candida - classification - isolation & purification
Candidemia - epidemiology - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
A prospective observational nationwide investigation was performed from September 2005 to August 2006 to study the epidemiology of candidaemia in Sweden. From 385 patients, 403 isolates were recovered, yielding an incidence of 4.2 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. Candida albicans was the most common species (61%), followed by Candida glabrata (20%) and Candida parapsilosis (9%). The rates of resistance to fluconazole were = 1% in C. albicans and 6-29% in non-albicans species other than C. glabrata and Candida krusei. Resistance to voriconazole was rare, except for C. glabrata and C. krusei. Only three isolates had reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B, and one had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin.
PubMed ID
23331511 View in PubMed
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[Candidemia in the hospitals in the Aarhus County, Denmark, 1993-2002].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171023
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Jan 23;168(4):363-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-23-2006
Author
Anette Marianne Fedder
Birgitte Mørn
Jens Kjølseth Møller
Author Affiliation
Arhus Universitetshospital, Klinisk Mikrobiologisk Afdeling, Arhus C. a.fedder@dadlnet.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Jan 23;168(4):363-6
Date
Jan-23-2006
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antifungal Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Candida - classification - isolation & purification
Candida albicans - isolation & purification
Candidiasis - epidemiology - transmission
Cross Infection - epidemiology - transmission
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Drug Utilization
Equipment Contamination
Humans
Abstract
During recent years a rise in the occurrence of candidaemia has been reported in the USA as well as in Europe, and especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of candidaemia and related Candida infections in the hospitals of Aarhus County, Denmark, from 1993 to 2002, and to assess possible causal factors, among these the consumption of antimicrobial agents.
The material included blood cultures carried out at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital (AUH), during the study period, plus Candida-positive cultures from other normally sterile sites from patients with candidaemia. Microbiological findings were compiled from our laboratory information system, MADS. Information regarding the use of antimicrobial agents in the hospitals of Aarhus County was obtained from the University Hospital pharmacy and the Danish Medicines Agency Web site.
During the study period the fraction of positive blood cultures was constant, while the fraction of positive cultures yielding Candida species increased from 1.8% to 3.4%, with an especially marked increase among patients in AUH. An increase in the proportion of Candida non-albicans species compared to C. albicans was noted, and it was also noted that the consumption of antimicrobial agents had risen markedly during the period.
The present study adds to the assumption of a causal relationship between candidaemia and the use of antimicrobials and foreign bodies.
PubMed ID
16436236 View in PubMed
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Decreased susceptibility of Candida albicans to azole antifungals: a complication of long-term treatment in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161838
Source
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Oct;60(4):889-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Riina Rautemaa
Malcolm Richardson
Michael Pfaller
Pirkko Koukila-Kähkölä
Jaakko Perheentupa
Harri Saxén
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. riina.richardson@helsinki.fi
Source
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Oct;60(4):889-92
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Azoles - pharmacology
Candida albicans - drug effects - isolation & purification
Child
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Finland
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune - complications - microbiology
Abstract
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, APS1) is an autosomal recessive disease exceptionally common in Finland. Most patients have chronic oral candidiasis from early childhood and this infection has been shown to be carcinogenic. Hence, patients receive repeated treatment and prophylactic courses of antifungals throughout life. In Finland, 92 patients have been diagnosed with APECED and 66 of them are currently alive. Our aim was to study the effect of long-term azole treatment on the candidal colonization of APECED patients and the influence on antifungal susceptibilities.
We evaluated the culture reports from 1994 to 2004 of 56 APECED patients followed in Helsinki University Central Hospital. Candida albicans strains of all 11 patients initially reported resistant (n = 27) and 12 patients reported susceptible (n = 16) to fluconazole were re-analysed for their susceptibility to fluconazole. Antifungal usage was analysed up to 30 years back.
A total of 162 fungal cultures had been performed. Of these, 75% had been reported positive for Candida and 63% for C. albicans. Eleven patients (31.4%) had been reported to harbour at least once a C. albicans strain resistant to fluconazole. Re-analysis of the stored C. albicans strains originally reported to be resistant to fluconazole revealed a mean MIC of 19.5 mg/L.
Multiple courses (>6) of fluconazole annually and low dose prophylaxis are major risk factors for persistent colonization with C. albicans with decreased susceptibility in APECED patients.
PubMed ID
17704513 View in PubMed
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Do HIV-seropositive patients become colonised with drug-resistant microorganisms?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7332
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002 Dec;21(12):856-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
T M Leegaard
D A Caugant
L O Frøholm
E A Høiby
E J Rønning
P. Sandven
J N Bruun
Author Affiliation
Division of Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. truls.leegaard@labmed.uio.no
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002 Dec;21(12):856-63
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology
Candida - drug effects - isolation & purification
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Escherichia coli - drug effects - isolation & purification
Female
HIV
HIV Infections - complications - microbiology
Haemophilus influenzae - drug effects - isolation & purification
Humans
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Staphylococcus - drug effects - isolation & purification
Streptococcus pneumoniae - drug effects - isolation & purification
Time Factors
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients, a group that is supposedly at risk for infection with antibiotic-resistant microbes, really does so, and to assess possible risk factors for acquiring these organisms. During the period from January 1998 to July 1999, samples of normal flora were obtained from 107 HIV-infected patients attending an outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway. The samples were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida spp., and the resulting isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The patients studied represented all stages of HIV infection, from recently infected to severely immunocompromised. Samples were taken at one, two or three time-points to determine whether antimicrobial resistance in colonising microorganisms increases over time. Antimicrobial resistance was linked primarily to antimicrobial prophylaxis, but it did not increase during the observation period. The level of a patient's immunodeficiency and the consequently intensified medical care was also of some importance. Even though about 50% of the patients were receiving antimicrobial agents at the time of sampling, the level of resistance found in these patients was very similar to that found in other patient groups in Norway; except for Candida albicans isolates, which were less susceptible to fluconazole. Overall, antimicrobial resistance was uncommon in the HIV-seropositive patients studied, a finding that is probably related to the overall low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the general population in Norway.
PubMed ID
12525920 View in PubMed
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[Drug resistance in the treatment of invasive fungal infections]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91171
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Nov 20;128(22):2607-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-20-2008
Author
Nordøy Ingvild
Gaustad Peter
Author Affiliation
Mikrobiologisk institutt Rikshospitalet 0027 Oslo. ingvild.nordoy@rikshospitalet.no.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Nov 20;128(22):2607-11
Date
Nov-20-2008
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antifungal Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Aspergillosis - drug therapy
Candidiasis - drug therapy
Drug Resistance, Fungal - genetics
Humans
Immunocompromised Host
Mitosporic Fungi - drug effects - genetics
Mycoses - drug therapy - immunology - microbiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive fungal infections is increasing in parallel with an increase of patients with immunodeficiencies. Resistance to these drugs is becoming a problem in spite of increased and improved treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature retrieved from Medline and personal findings and experience form the basis for this article. RESULTS: Candida albicans is still the most common species causing invasive fungal infections, but Candida non-albicans species are increasing in number. Invasive Aspergillus infections and infection with other moulds than Aspergillus spp. do occur, but do not constitute a large proportion of these infections. As of today we have four classes of antifungal agents and seven drugs with different mechanisms of action are registered in Norway. Primary resistance to several of these drugs has been observed in a number of Candida and Aspergillus species and this is the dominating form of resistance we observe today. Secondary resistance due to treatment is still an uncommon finding. Clinical resistance, which, in spite of in vitro susceptibility does not lead to eradication of the fungus, is also commonly observed. INTERPRETATION: The incidence of natural resistant fungi is increasing. Our main current challenge is therefore to rapidly and precisely identify the fungi so the proper drug is used to quickly initiate treatment on the correct indication.
PubMed ID
19023376 View in PubMed
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Epidemiological changes with potential implication for antifungal prescription recommendations for fungaemia: data from a nationwide fungaemia surveillance programme.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114559
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Aug;19(8):E343-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
M C Arendrup
E. Dzajic
R H Jensen
H K Johansen
P. Kjaeldgaard
J D Knudsen
L. Kristensen
C. Leitz
L E Lemming
L. Nielsen
B. Olesen
F S Rosenvinge
B L Røder
H C Schønheyder
Author Affiliation
Unit of Mycology, Department of Microbiological Surveillance and Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark. maca@ssi.dk
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Aug;19(8):E343-53
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Candida - classification - drug effects - isolation & purification
Candidemia - epidemiology - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Abstract
Significant changes in the management of fungaemia have occurred over the last decade with increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis, of empirical treatment and of echinocandins as first-line agents for documented disease. These changes may impact the epidemiology of fungaemia. We present nationwide data for Denmark from 2010 to 2011. A total of 1081 isolates from 1047 episodes were recorded in 995 patients. The numbers of patients, episodes and recovered isolates increased by 13.1%, 14.5% and 14.1%, respectively, from 2010 to 2011. The incidence rate was significantly higher in 2011 (10.05/100 000) than in 2010 (8.82/100 000), but remained constant in the age groups 0-79 years. The incidence rate was highest at the extremes of age and in males. Candida albicans accounted for 52.1% but declined during 2004-11 (p 0.0155). Candida glabrata accounted for 28% and increased during 2004-2011 (p
Notes
Erratum In: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Aug;19(8):E376
PubMed ID
23607326 View in PubMed
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Epidemiology of fungaemia in Sweden: A nationwide retrospective observational survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296576
Source
Mycoses. 2018 Oct; 61(10):777-785
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Lena Klingspor
Måns Ullberg
Johan Rydberg
Nahid Kondori
Lena Serrander
Jonas Swanberg
Kenneth Nilsson
Cecilia Jendle Bengtén
Marcus Johansson
Margareta Granlund
Eva Törnqvist
Anders Nyberg
Karin Kindlund
Minna Ygge
Dalila Kartout-Boukdir
Michael Toepfer
Eva Hålldin
Gunnar Kahlmeter
Volkan Özenci
Author Affiliation
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Mycoses. 2018 Oct; 61(10):777-785
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antifungal Agents - pharmacology
Candida - classification - drug effects - isolation & purification
Candidemia - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Meningitis, Fungal - epidemiology - etiology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To identify the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. among blood culture isolates to identify the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. among blood culture isolates in Sweden.
The study was a retrospective, observational nationwide laboratory-based surveillance for fungaemia and fungal meningitis and was conducted from September 2015 to August 2016.
In total, 488 Candida blood culture isolates were obtained from 471 patients (58% males). Compared to our previous study, the incidence of candidaemia has increased from 4.2/100 000 (2005-2006) to 4.7/100 000 population/year (2015-2016). The three most common Candida spp. isolated from blood cultures were Candida albicans (54.7%), Candida glabrata (19.7%) and species in the Candida parapsilosis complex (9.4%). Candida resistance to fluconazole was 2% in C. albicans and between 0% and 100%, in non-albicans species other than C. glabrata and C. krusei. Resistance to voriconazole was rare, except for C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis. Resistance to anidulafungin was 3.8% while no Candida isolate was resistant to amphotericin B.
We report an overall increase in candidaemia but a minor decrease of C. albicans while C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis remain constant over this 10-year period.
PubMed ID
29920785 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.