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Acquired macrolide resistance genes in pathogenic Neisseria spp. isolated between 1940 and 1987.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182672
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Dec;47(12):3877-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Sydney Cousin
William L H Whittington
Marilyn C Roberts
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Dec;47(12):3877-80
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Conjugation, Genetic
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Genes, Bacterial - genetics
Genotype
Gonorrhea - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
In Situ Hybridization
Meningococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Methyltransferases - genetics
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - drug effects - genetics
Neisseria meningitidis - drug effects - genetics
Promoter Regions, Genetic - genetics
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Time Factors
Abstract
Seventy-six Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates, isolated between 1940 and 1987, and seven Neisseria meningitidis isolates, isolated between 1963 and 1987, were screened for the presence of acquired mef(A), erm(B), erm(C), and erm(F) genes by using DNA-DNA hybridization, PCR analysis, and sequencing. The mef(A), erm(B), and erm(F) genes were all identified in a 1955 N. gonorrhoeae isolate, while the erm(C) gene was identified in a 1963 N. gonorrhoeae isolate. Similarly, both the mef(A) and erm(F) genes were identified in a 1963 N. meningitidis isolate. All four acquired genes were found in later isolates of both species. The mef(A) gene from a 1975 N. gonorrhoeae isolate was sequenced and had 100% DNA and amino acid identity with the mef(A) gene from a 1990s Streptococcus pneumoniae isolate. Selected early isolates were able to transfer their acquired genes to an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, suggesting that these genes are associated with conjugative transposons. These isolates are the oldest of any species to carry the mef(A) gene and among the oldest to carry these erm genes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
14638497 View in PubMed
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Acquisition of extended spectrum ß-lactamases during travel abroad-A qualitative study among Swedish travellers examining their knowledge, risk assessment, and behaviour.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282072
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2016;11:32378
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Susanne Wiklund
Ingegerd Fagerberg
Åke Örtqvist
Kristina Broliden
Ann Tammelin
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2016;11:32378
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Proteins
Carrier state
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Qualitative Research
Risk assessment
Risk-Taking
Sweden
Travel
beta-Lactamases
Abstract
Travel to foreign countries involves the risk of becoming a carrier of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially when the destination is a country with a high prevalence of this type of bacteria.
The aim of this study was to learn about the knowledge of antibiotic resistance, and the behaviour and risk-taking among travellers, who had become carriers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria during travel to a high-prevalence country. A modified version of grounded theory was used to analyse 15 open interviews.
The analysis resulted in a core category: A need for knowledge to avoid risk-taking. Before the journey, the participants did not perceive there to be any risk of becoming a carrier of antibiotic- resistant bacteria. The low level of knowledge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and transmission routes influenced their behaviour and risk-taking during their journey, resulting in them exposing themselves to risk situations. After their trip, the majority did not believe that their personal risk behaviour could have caused them to become carriers of ESBL.
The participants' lack of knowledge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria resulted in unconscious risk-taking during their journey, which may have resulted in becoming carriers of ESBL-producing bacteria.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27806830 View in PubMed
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[Adherence to international recommendations in the fight against antimicrobial resistance - Substantial difference between outpatient consumption in Spain and Denmark].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278374
Source
Rev Esp Quimioter. 2016 Feb;29(1):40-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Sara Malo
María José Rabanaque
Lars Bjerrum
Source
Rev Esp Quimioter. 2016 Feb;29(1):40-3
Date
Feb-2016
Language
Spanish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Cephalosporins
Databases, Factual
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Utilization
Fluoroquinolones
Guideline Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Macrolides
Outpatients
Spain - epidemiology
Abstract
Increasing antibiotic resistance represents a major public health threat that jeopardises the future treatment of bacterial infections. This study aims to describe the adherence to recommendations proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR), in Spain and Denmark, and to analyse the relation between the outpatient use of Critically Important Antimicrobials (CIA) and the bacterial resistance rates to these agents.
The Antimicrobial consumption interactive database (ESAC-Net) and Antimicrobial resistance interactive database (EARS-Net) provided data on outpatient use (2010-2013) of CIA (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins) and the percentages of isolates of the main pathogens causing serious infections, resistant to these agents.
The use of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, as well as the percentage of bacteria resistant, is higher in Spain than in Denmark. Although consumption of macrolides in both countries is similar, the proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolides is significantly higher in Spain.
The high outpatient consumption of CIA agents in Spain deviates substantially from the WHO recommendations. Moreover, it has the effect of elevated rates of antimicrobial resistance, that are lower in Denmark.
PubMed ID
26809795 View in PubMed
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Adverse health events associated with antimicrobial drug resistance in Campylobacter species: a registry-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58186
Source
J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1;191(7):1050-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2005
Author
Morten Helms
Jacob Simonsen
Katharina E P Olsen
Kare Mølbak
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1;191(7):1050-5
Date
Apr-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Campylobacter - drug effects - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Campylobacter Infections - complications - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Erythromycin - pharmacology
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Quinolones - pharmacology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Risk factors
Virulence
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents, particularly fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is increasing among Campylobacter isolates, but few studies have explored the human health consequences of such resistance. METHODS: In a registry-based cohort study, we determined the risk of invasive illness and death associated with infection with quinolone- and erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter strains, while adjusting for comorbidity. We linked data from the Danish Surveillance Registry for Enteric Pathogens with data from the Civil Registration System and National Health Registries. RESULTS: Of 3471 patients with Campylobacter infection, 22 (0.63%) had an adverse event, defined as invasive illness or death, within 90 days of the date of receipt of samples. Patients infected with quinolone-resistant Campylobacter strains had a 6-fold increased risk of an adverse event within 30 days of the date of receipt of samples, compared with patients infected with quinolone- and erythromycin-susceptible Campylobacter strains (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.17 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.62-23.47]). However, infection with erythromycin-resistant strains was associated with a >5-fold risk of an adverse event within 90 days of the date of receipt of samples (AOR, 5.51 [95% CI, 1.19-25.50]). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence of the human health consequences of resistance to clinically important agents among Campylobacter infections and the need for increased efforts to mitigate such resistance.
Notes
Comment In: J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1;191(7):1029-3115747234
Comment In: J Infect Dis. 2005 Dec 1;192(11):2027-8; author reply 2028-916267777
Erratum In: J Infect Dis. 2005 May 1;191(9):1570
PubMed ID
15747238 View in PubMed
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Age and risk factors influence the microbial aetiology of bloodstream infection in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119258
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2013 Feb;102(2):182-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Joachim Luthander
Rutger Bennet
Christian G Giske
Anna Nilsson
Margareta Eriksson
Author Affiliation
Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit at the Pediatric Emergency Department, Astrid Lindgren's Children Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. joachim.luthander@karolinska.se
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2013 Feb;102(2):182-6
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacteremia - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Candidemia - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Pneumococcal Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Staphylococcal Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To study the aetiology of bloodstream infections (BSI) in children 0-17 years, the influence of age and underlying co-morbidity on BSI rate, distribution of pathogens and outcome; and to provide data on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.
A retrospective population-based study. Data on blood cultures were collected at yearly intervals during 1998-2008. Information about risk factors, focal infection and outcome was retrieved from the patient charts.
We identified 1097 BSI. The incidence of BSI was 0.4/1000. The age-specific incidence was 2.3/1000 in neonates (0-28 days old) and 0.2/1000 in the age group 6-17 years. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The number of species causing BSI in previously healthy children was lower compared with children with co-morbidity. Most children requiring intensive care had a serious underlying illness. Antimicrobial resistance was rare and did not influence outcome. The case-fatality rate was 14.4% in neonates, 5.4% in children with co-morbidity and 1.7% in previously healthy children.
Mortality from BSI is low, and a limited spectrum of pathogens is isolated from previously healthy children compared with children with co-morbidity. When choosing empirical therapy for suspected BSI, age and presence of risk factors should be taken into account.
PubMed ID
23121094 View in PubMed
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Alarming spread of vancomycin resistant enterococci in Sweden since 2007.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141857
Source
Euro Surveill. 2010;15(29)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
T. Soderblom
O. Aspevall
M. Erntell
G. Hedin
D. Heimer
I. Hokeberg
K. Kidd-Ljunggren
A. Melhus
B. Olsson-Liljequist
I. Sjogren
J. Smedjegard
J. Struwe
S. Sylvan
K. Tegmark-Wisell
M. Thore
Author Affiliation
Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
Source
Euro Surveill. 2010;15(29)
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Enterococcus - drug effects
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Humans
Population Surveillance
Sweden - epidemiology
Vancomycin - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Abstract
The total number of persons infected or colonised with vancomycin-resistant enterococci mandatorily reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control increased dramatically during 2007 and 2008. During a period of twenty months from 1 July 2007 to 28 February 2009, a total of 760 cases were reported compared with 194 cases reported during the entire period from 2000 to 2006. This rise was mainly attributed to a wide dissemination of vancomycin resistant enterococci which started in a number of hospitals in Stockholm in the autumn of 2007 and was followed by dissemination in various healthcare facilities (hospitals and homes for the elderly) in a further two Swedish counties in 2008. The majority of the cases (97%) were acquired in Sweden and among these, healthcare-acquired E. faecium vanB dominated (n=634). The majority of these isolates had identical or closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns indicating clonal dissemination in the affected counties. The median minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was 32 mg/L (ranging from 4 to >128 mg/L) and of teichoplanin 0.12 mg/L (ranging from 0.06 to 0.25 mg/L). Particular emphasis was placed on countermeasures such as screening, contact tracing, cleaning procedures, education in accurate use of infection control practices as well as increasing awareness of hygiene among patients and visitors. With these measures the dissemination rate decreased substantially, but new infections with the E. faecium vanB strain were still detected.
PubMed ID
20667301 View in PubMed
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Alaska sentinel surveillance study of Helicobacter pylori isolates from Alaska Native persons from 2000 to 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132465
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Oct;49(10):3638-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Adrienne H Tveit
Michael G Bruce
Dana L Bruden
Julie Morris
Alisa Reasonover
Debby A Hurlburt
Thomas W Hennessy
Brian McMahon
Author Affiliation
Alaska Native Medical Center, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Oct;49(10):3638-43
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Biopsy
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Gastric Mucosa - microbiology
Helicobacter Infections - epidemiology
Helicobacter pylori - drug effects - isolation & purification
Humans
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Population Groups
Prevalence
Sentinel Surveillance
Young Adult
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection is more common in Alaska Native persons than in the general U.S. population, with seroprevalence to H. pylori approaching 75%. Previous studies in Alaska have demonstrated elevated proportions of antimicrobial resistance among H. pylori isolates. We analyzed H. pylori data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's sentinel surveillance in Alaska from January 2000 to December 2008 to determine the proportion of culture-positive biopsy specimens with antimicrobial resistance from Alaska Native persons undergoing endoscopy. The aim of the present study was to monitor antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates over time and by region in Alaska Native persons. Susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline was performed using agar dilution. Susceptibility testing for levofloxacin was performed by Etest. Overall, 45% (532/1,181) of persons undergoing upper endoscopy were culture positive for H. pylori. Metronidazole resistance was demonstrated in isolates from 222/531 (42%) persons, clarithromycin resistance in 159/531 (30%) persons, amoxicillin resistance in 10/531 (2%) persons, and levofloxacin resistance in 30/155 (19%) persons; no tetracycline resistance was documented. The prevalence of metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin resistance varied by region. Female patients were more likely than male patients to demonstrate metronidazole (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
21813726 View in PubMed
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Ambler class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in Canadian hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180913
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Apr;48(4):1204-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Michael R Mulvey
Elizabeth Bryce
David Boyd
Marianna Ofner-Agostini
Sara Christianson
Andrew E Simor
Shirley Paton
Author Affiliation
Nosocomial Infections, National Microbiology Laboratory, Health Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba. michael_mulvey@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Apr;48(4):1204-14
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Canada - epidemiology
Chromosome Mapping
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Escherichia coli - drug effects - enzymology
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Klebsiella - drug effects - enzymology
Klebsiella Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Molecular Sequence Data
Phenotype
Plasmids - genetics
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transformation, Bacterial - genetics
beta-Lactamases - biosynthesis - genetics
Abstract
This report describes a study carried out to gain baseline information on the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in Canada. A total of 29,323 E. coli and 5,156 Klebsiella sp. isolates were screened at 12 participating sites. Of these, 505 clinically significant, nonrepeat isolates displaying reduced susceptibility to the NCCLS-recommended beta-lactams were submitted to a central laboratory over a 1-year period ending on 30 September 2000. A total of 116 isolates were confirmed to be ESBL producers. PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of TEM-11 (n = 1), TEM-12 (n = 1), TEM-29 (n = 1), TEM-52 (n = 4), CTX-M-13 (n = 1), CTX-M-14 (n = 15), CTX-M-15 (n = 11), SHV-2 (n = 2), SHV-2a (n = 12), SHV-5 (n = 6), SHV-12 (n = 45), and SHV-30 (n = 2). Five novel beta-lactamases were identified and designated TEM-115 (n = 2), TEM-120 (n = 1), SHV-40 (n = 2), SHV-41 (n = 4), and SHV-42 (n = 1). In addition, no molecular mechanism was identified for five isolates displaying an ESBL phenotype. Macrorestriction analysis of all ESBL isolates was conducted, as was restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of plasmids harboring ESBLs. Although a "clonal" distribution of isolates was observed at some individual sites, there was very little evidence suggesting intrahospital spread. In addition, examples of identical or closely related plasmids that were identified at geographically distinct sites across Canada are given. However, there was considerable diversity with respect to plasmid types observed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15047521 View in PubMed
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[Aminoglycoside resistance in gramnegative pathogens of nosocomial infections in Russia].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177139
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 2004;49(5):11-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
G K Reshed'ko
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 2004;49(5):11-23
Date
2004
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetyltransferases - metabolism
Aminoglycosides - pharmacology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Cross Infection - microbiology - prevention & control
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Gentamicins - pharmacology
Gram-Negative Bacteria - drug effects - enzymology
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - prevention & control
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Nucleotidyltransferases - metabolism
Phosphotransferases - metabolism
Russia
Substrate Specificity
Abstract
The study of the mechanisms of aminoglycoside resistance in gramnegative pathogens of nosocomial infections in 14 hospitals of Russia showed that the basic mechanism was production of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, mainly adenylyl transferase ANT(2"), acetyl transferases AAC(3)-V and ACC(6)-I, and phosphotransferases APH(3')-I and APH(3')-VI. In all the hospitals enzymes modifying gentamicin and tobramycin were wide spread while the resistance phenotypes to aminoglycosides were different in separate hospitals. Isepamycin proved to be the most active aminoglycoside. Recommendations for the use of antibiotics in hospital formulas and empiric therapy should be developed on the basis of the local specific features of the resistance in nosocomial pathogens to aminoglycosides.
PubMed ID
15573898 View in PubMed
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Analysis of licensed over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271384
Source
Euro Surveill. 2015;20(34):30002
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Leonard Both
Radu Botgros
Marco Cavaleri
Source
Euro Surveill. 2015;20(34):30002
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Topical
Adult
Anti-Bacterial Agents - supply & distribution - therapeutic use
Bacterial Infections - drug therapy
Drug Resistance, Bacterial - genetics
European Union
Humans
Nonprescription Drugs - supply & distribution - therapeutic use
Norway
Public Health
Self Medication
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is recognised as a growing problem that seriously threatens public health and requires prompt action. Concerns have therefore been raised about the potential harmful effects of making antibiotics available without prescription. Because of the very serious concerns regarding further spread of resistance, the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of antibiotics was analysed here. Topical and systemic OTC antibiotics and their indications were determined across 26 European Union (EU) countries and Norway by means of a European survey. We identified a total of 48 OTC products containing 20 different single antibiotics and three antibiotic combinations as active substances, used mainly as topical preparations in short treatment courses. Given the relevance of these medicines and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance, it is important to limit the availability of OTC antibiotics and to monitor their use.
PubMed ID
26530125 View in PubMed
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