BACKGROUND: Drug therapy for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is based on anti-inflammatory and immunodulating drugs, nutritional support and surgical resection. Recently, new drugs have been introduced. AIM: To report drug prescriptions, costs and adverse reactions among inflammatory bowel disease patients in Sweden between 1988 and 1997. METHODS: Drug use was calculated from the national Diagnosis and therapy survey and drug costs from prescriptions and drug sales. Adverse drug reactions were obtained from the Medical Products Agency's National Pharmacovigilance system. RESULTS: The annual drug exposure for Crohn's disease was 0.55 million daily doses per million population, mainly supplementation and aminosalicylic acids. Mesalazine and olsalazine had 61% within this group. For ulcerative colitis patients, drug exposure was 0.61 million daily doses per million per year and aminosalicylic acids fell from 70% to 65%. For inflammatory bowel disease patients, corticosteroids and nutritional supplementation were common. The annual average cost for inflammatory bowel disease drugs was 7.0 million US dollars. Annually, 32 adverse drug reactions were reported, mainly haematological reactions such as agranulocytosis and pancytopenia (60%), followed by skin reactions. Only two deaths were reported. Aminosalicylic acids were the most commonly reported compounds. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use for inflammatory bowel disease in the pre-biologic agent era rested on aminosalicylic acid drugs and corticosteroids with stable levels, proportions and costs. The level of adverse drug reactions was low but haematological reactions support the monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease patients.
Self-reported angina symptoms are collected in epidemiological surveys. We aimed at validating the angina symptoms assessed by the Rose Questionnaire against registry data on coronary heart disease. A further aim was to examine the sex paradox in angina implying that women report more symptoms, whereas men have more coronary events.
Angina symptoms of 6601 employees of the City of Helsinki were examined using the postal questionnaire survey data combined with coronary heart disease registries.
The self-reported angina was classified as no symptoms, atypical pain, exertional chest pain, and stable angina symptoms. Reimbursed medications and hospital admissions were available from registries 10 years before the survey. Binomial regression analysis was used.
Stable angina symptoms were associated with hospital admissions and reimbursed medications [prevalence ratio (PR), 6.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.56-9.99]. In addition, exertional chest pain (PR, 5.31; 95% CI, 3.45-8.18) was associated with coronary events. All events were more prevalent among men than women (PR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.72-3.25).
The Rose Questionnaire remains a valid tool to distinguish healthy people from those with coronary heart disease. However, a notable part of those reporting symptoms have no confirmation of coronary heart disease in the registries. The female excess of symptoms and male excess of events may reflect inequality or delay in access to treatment, problems in identification and diagnosis, or more complex issues related to self-reported angina symptoms.
Treatment options and therapeutic guidelines have evolved substantially since highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) became the standard of HIV care in 1996. We conducted the present population-based analysis to characterize the determinants of direct costs of HAART over time in British Columbia, Canada.
We considered individuals ever receiving HAART in British Columbia from 1996 to 2011. Linear mixed-effects regression models were constructed to determine the effects of demographic indicators, clinical stage, and treatment characteristics on quarterly costs of HAART (in 2010$CDN) among individuals initiating in different temporal periods. The least-square mean values were estimated by CD4 category and over time for each temporal cohort.
Longitudinal data on HAART recipients (N = 9601, 17.6% female, mean age at initiation = 40.5) were analyzed. Multiple regression analyses identified demographics, treatment adherence, and pharmacological class to be independently associated with quarterly HAART costs. Higher CD4 cell counts were associated with modestly lower costs among pre-HAART initiators [least-square means (95% confidence interval), CD4 >?500: 4674 (4632-4716); CD4: 350-499: 4765 (4721-4809) CD4: 200-349: 4826 (4780-4871); CD4
We have analyzed pharmacoeconomical indicators in the treatment of idiopathic (generalized and focal) epilepsy in children and adolescence in an ambulatory treatment/diagnostic center of a big industrial city. In the total structure, focal epilepsy made up 41.73% (255 patients, 128 boys (50.2%) and 128 girls (49.8%)). Generalized forms were diagnosed in 61.96% (n=158) and partial forms - in 37.6% (n=97%) patients. Minimal direct and indirect costs for one patient were calculated for patients in remission and did not depend on the form of epilepsy. The costs increased by a magnitude of two or more for treatment efficiency 50% and by 3 times for insufficient efficiency of treatment of different forms of epilepsy. In case of a loss of control of seizures, indirect costs exceeded the economy of direct costs. Adequate treatment of idiopathic epilepsy in children is economically profitable because it allows to improve quality of life of a child and maintain manpower resources in the nearest future.
Like other developed countries with aging populations, Sweden is expecting large increases in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and corresponding escalations in the cost of care for patients with this disease. Galantamine, a new acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and nicotinic modulator, has proved effective in managing patients with Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials.
To estimate the long-term health and economic impact of galantamine from the perspective of the public health payer in Sweden.
The Assessment of Health Economics in Alzheimer's Disease (AHEAD) model compares galantamine treatment with no pharmacologic treatment. It consists of a module based on trial data followed by a projection module that uses the trial results to predict the time until patients require full-time care (FTC) or until their death. Forecasts were made for up to 10 years. The model was customised to Sweden by using Swedish resource use profiles obtained from the literature.
Galantamine is predicted to reduce the time patients require FTC by almost 10%. Approximately 5.6 patients with mild-to-moderate disease would need to be treated to avoid one year of FTC. This would result in savings averaging 27 436 Swedish kronas (SEK) [3131 euros (EUR)] per patient over 10 years (1998 values). To avoid one year of FTC, 3.9 patients with moderate disease would need to be treated, with savings averaging SEK49 019 (EUR 5594) per patient over 10.5 years. Sensitivity analyses of key parameters, such as proportion of patients needing FTC treated in the community, cost of care in an institution, cost of FTC care in the community, the price of galantamine, and the discount rate, found savings with galantamine would occur under most circumstances.
Galantamine can increase the time before patients require FTC, and may also lead to savings as treatment costs are offset by reductions in other healthcare expenditures and the costs associated with FTC.
This qualitative research aims to understand, from the standpoint of the family physician, the barriers to treating depression in the office setting. Three primary barriers to treating depression in the family physician's office were identified: systemic, physician-related, and patient-related. The systemic barriers involved the shortage of qualified, publicly-funded counsellors, lack of locally available counselling, and the cost of medication. Physician-related barriers included lack of time and expertise, and inadequacies of the reimbursement system. Patient-related barriers were rooted in the stigma attached to depression and failure to comply with treatment.
Prescription drug expenditures in North America have nearly doubled in the past 5 years, creating intense pressure for all public and private benefits managers and policymakers.
The objective of this study was to describe age-specific drug expenditure trends from 1996 to 2002 for the Canadian province of British Columbia.
This study shows changes in expenditures per capita quantified for 5 age categories: residents aged 0 to 19, 20 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 84, and 85 and older. The cost impacts of 7 determinants of prescription drug expenditures are quantified.
This study describes population-based, patient-specific pharmaceutical data showing the type, quantity, and cost of every prescription drug purchased by virtually all residents of British Columbia.
Population-wide expenditures per capita grew at a rate of 11.6% per annum. Growth was primarily driven by the selection of more costly drugs per course of treatment and increases in the number concomitant treatments received per patient. Population aging did not have a major impact on expenditures. However, expenditure per capita grew most rapid among residents aged 45 to 64, the cohort that expended most over the period. The aging of this demographic cohort may threaten the financial viability of age-based drug benefit programs.
To update the 1993 burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada, administrative and community data were used to calculate the 2010 costs of osteoporosis at $2.3 billion in Canada or 1.3% of Canada's healthcare expenditures. Prevention of fractures in high-risk individuals is key to decrease the financial burden of osteoporosis.
Since the 1996 publication of the burden of osteoporosis in 1993 in Canada, the population has aged and the management of osteoporosis has changed. The study purpose was to estimate the current burden of illness due to osteoporosis in Canadians aged 50 and over.
Analyses were conducted using five national administrative databases from the Canadian Institute for Health Information for the fiscal-year ending March 31 2008 (FY 2007/2008). Gaps in national data were supplemented by provincial and community data extrapolated to national levels. Osteoporosis-related fractures were identified using a combination of most responsible diagnosis at discharge and intervention codes. Fractures associated with severe trauma codes were excluded. Costs, expressed in 2010 dollars, were calculated for osteoporosis-related hospitalizations, emergency care, same day surgeries, rehabilitation, continuing care, homecare, long-term care, prescription drugs, physician visits, and productivity losses. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to measure the impact on the results of key assumptions.
Osteoporosis-related fractures were responsible for 57,413 acute care admissions and 832,594 hospitalized days in FY 2007/2008. Acute care costs were estimated at $1.2 billion. When outpatient care, prescription drugs, and indirect costs were added, the overall yearly cost of osteoporosis was over $2.3 billion for the base case analysis and as much as $3.9 billion if a proportion of Canadians were assumed to be living in long-term care facilities due to osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that affects a large segment of the adult population and results in a substantial economic burden to the Canadian society.
Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24 years.
A total of 5,547 subjects from a nation-wide birth cohort were linked to the National Prescription Register. Information about parent- and teacher-reported conduct, hyperkinetic and emotional symptoms, and self-reported depressive symptoms was gathered at age 8 years. The main outcome measure was national register-based lifetime information about purchases of antidepressants between ages 8 and 24 years. In addition, antidepressant costs were analyzed using a Heckman maximum likelihood model.
In all, 8.8% of males and 13.8% of females had used antidepressants between age 13 and 24 years. Among males, conduct problems independently predicted later antidepressant use. In both genders, self-reported depressive symptoms and living in other than a family with two biological parent at age 8 years independently predicted later antidepressant use. Significant gender interactions were found for conduct and hyperkinetic problems, indicating that more males who had these problems at age 8 have used antidepressants compared with females with the same problems.
Childhood psychopathology predicts use of antidepressants, but the type of childhood psychopathology predicting antidepressant use is different among males and females.
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2011 Nov;14(4):9721862486
Previous research has shown that a small proportion of the population accounts for a substantial proportion of spending on physician and hospital services. Much less is known about the high-cost users of ambulatory prescription medicines. We investigate the concentration and sustained nature of ambulatory prescription drug expenditures among residents of British Columbia, Canada in 2001 and 2004. Linking person-specific administrative data from several sources, we examine the demographics, socio-economic status, and health status of high-cost ambulatory pharmaceutical users and the extent that high-cost pharmaceutical use was sustained, at the individual level, from 2001 to 2004. The top 5% of users were responsible for 48% of ambulatory prescription expenditures in the province. A significant burden of morbidity, as well as sustained high expenditures, characterized these users. They were older, more likely to be female, more likely to be of low income, and more likely to be hospitalized and die within the year of study than other pharmaceutical users and non-users. Our results suggest that careful consideration should be given to the long-term financial burdens and access barriers created by pharmaceutical insurance policies that rely heavily on private payments by individuals. Our focus is on costs associated with ambulatory prescription drug use, however, had we included information on the cost of prescription drugs used in hospitals, we would likely have detected an even stronger relationship between high-cost pharmaceutical use and poor health status.