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128 records – page 1 of 13.

A 10-year survey of inflammatory bowel diseases-drug therapy, costs and adverse reactions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71979
Source
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Apr;15(4):475-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
P. Blomqvist
N. Feltelius
R. Löfberg
A. Ekbom
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Paul.Blomqvist@mep.ki.se
Source
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Apr;15(4):475-81
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Aged
Anti-Inflammatory Agents - adverse effects - economics - therapeutic use
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - drug therapy - economics
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Support
Physician's Practice Patterns
Prescriptions, Drug - economics
Retrospective Studies
Steroids
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Drug therapy for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is based on anti-inflammatory and immunodulating drugs, nutritional support and surgical resection. Recently, new drugs have been introduced. AIM: To report drug prescriptions, costs and adverse reactions among inflammatory bowel disease patients in Sweden between 1988 and 1997. METHODS: Drug use was calculated from the national Diagnosis and therapy survey and drug costs from prescriptions and drug sales. Adverse drug reactions were obtained from the Medical Products Agency's National Pharmacovigilance system. RESULTS: The annual drug exposure for Crohn's disease was 0.55 million daily doses per million population, mainly supplementation and aminosalicylic acids. Mesalazine and olsalazine had 61% within this group. For ulcerative colitis patients, drug exposure was 0.61 million daily doses per million per year and aminosalicylic acids fell from 70% to 65%. For inflammatory bowel disease patients, corticosteroids and nutritional supplementation were common. The annual average cost for inflammatory bowel disease drugs was 7.0 million US dollars. Annually, 32 adverse drug reactions were reported, mainly haematological reactions such as agranulocytosis and pancytopenia (60%), followed by skin reactions. Only two deaths were reported. Aminosalicylic acids were the most commonly reported compounds. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use for inflammatory bowel disease in the pre-biologic agent era rested on aminosalicylic acid drugs and corticosteroids with stable levels, proportions and costs. The level of adverse drug reactions was low but haematological reactions support the monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease patients.
PubMed ID
11284775 View in PubMed
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Angina pectoris: relation of epidemiological survey to registry data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135757
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011 Aug;18(4):621-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Tea Lallukka
Kristiina Manderbacka
Ilmo Keskimäki
Harry Hemingway
Ossi Rahkonen
Eero Lahelma
Reunanen Antti
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. tea.lallukka@helsinki.fi
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011 Aug;18(4):621-6
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Angina Pectoris - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Agents - economics
Coronary Disease - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Insurance, Health, Reimbursement - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Questionnaires
ROC Curve
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Regression Analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Self Report
Sex Distribution
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Self-reported angina symptoms are collected in epidemiological surveys. We aimed at validating the angina symptoms assessed by the Rose Questionnaire against registry data on coronary heart disease. A further aim was to examine the sex paradox in angina implying that women report more symptoms, whereas men have more coronary events.
Angina symptoms of 6601 employees of the City of Helsinki were examined using the postal questionnaire survey data combined with coronary heart disease registries.
The self-reported angina was classified as no symptoms, atypical pain, exertional chest pain, and stable angina symptoms. Reimbursed medications and hospital admissions were available from registries 10 years before the survey. Binomial regression analysis was used.
Stable angina symptoms were associated with hospital admissions and reimbursed medications [prevalence ratio (PR), 6.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.56-9.99]. In addition, exertional chest pain (PR, 5.31; 95% CI, 3.45-8.18) was associated with coronary events. All events were more prevalent among men than women (PR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.72-3.25).
The Rose Questionnaire remains a valid tool to distinguish healthy people from those with coronary heart disease. However, a notable part of those reporting symptoms have no confirmation of coronary heart disease in the registries. The female excess of symptoms and male excess of events may reflect inequality or delay in access to treatment, problems in identification and diagnosis, or more complex issues related to self-reported angina symptoms.
PubMed ID
21450561 View in PubMed
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Antiretroviral drug costs and prescription patterns in British Columbia, Canada: 1996-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104295
Source
Med Care. 2014 Apr;52(4):362-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Bohdan Nosyk
Julio S G Montaner
Benita Yip
Viviane D Lima
Robert S Hogg
Author Affiliation
*BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS †Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University ‡Division of AIDS, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Med Care. 2014 Apr;52(4):362-9
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-HIV Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - economics - utilization
British Columbia - epidemiology
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Female
HIV Infections - drug therapy - economics
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Physician's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Treatment options and therapeutic guidelines have evolved substantially since highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) became the standard of HIV care in 1996. We conducted the present population-based analysis to characterize the determinants of direct costs of HAART over time in British Columbia, Canada.
We considered individuals ever receiving HAART in British Columbia from 1996 to 2011. Linear mixed-effects regression models were constructed to determine the effects of demographic indicators, clinical stage, and treatment characteristics on quarterly costs of HAART (in 2010$CDN) among individuals initiating in different temporal periods. The least-square mean values were estimated by CD4 category and over time for each temporal cohort.
Longitudinal data on HAART recipients (N = 9601, 17.6% female, mean age at initiation = 40.5) were analyzed. Multiple regression analyses identified demographics, treatment adherence, and pharmacological class to be independently associated with quarterly HAART costs. Higher CD4 cell counts were associated with modestly lower costs among pre-HAART initiators [least-square means (95% confidence interval), CD4 >?500: 4674 (4632-4716); CD4: 350-499: 4765 (4721-4809) CD4: 200-349: 4826 (4780-4871); CD4
PubMed ID
24848208 View in PubMed
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[A pharmacoeconomical analysis of idiopathic epilepsy].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113329
Source
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2013;113(4 Pt 2):71-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
E V Shagrova
N V Orekhova
P N Vlasov
M V Leonova
I O Shchderkina
Source
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2013;113(4 Pt 2):71-5
Date
2013
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anticonvulsants - economics - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost of Illness
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Economics, Pharmaceutical
Epilepsies, Partial - drug therapy - economics
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Remission Induction
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
We have analyzed pharmacoeconomical indicators in the treatment of idiopathic (generalized and focal) epilepsy in children and adolescence in an ambulatory treatment/diagnostic center of a big industrial city. In the total structure, focal epilepsy made up 41.73% (255 patients, 128 boys (50.2%) and 128 girls (49.8%)). Generalized forms were diagnosed in 61.96% (n=158) and partial forms - in 37.6% (n=97%) patients. Minimal direct and indirect costs for one patient were calculated for patients in remission and did not depend on the form of epilepsy. The costs increased by a magnitude of two or more for treatment efficiency 50% and by 3 times for insufficient efficiency of treatment of different forms of epilepsy. In case of a loss of control of seizures, indirect costs exceeded the economy of direct costs. Adequate treatment of idiopathic epilepsy in children is economically profitable because it allows to improve quality of life of a child and maintain manpower resources in the nearest future.
PubMed ID
23739459 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Health Economics in Alzheimer's Disease (AHEAD): treatment with galantamine in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189236
Source
Pharmacoeconomics. 2002;20(9):629-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Frances B Garfield
Denis Getsios
J Jaime Caro
Anders Wimo
Bengt Winblad
Author Affiliation
Caro Research Institute, Concord, Massachusetts 01742, USA. fgarfield@caroresearch.com
Source
Pharmacoeconomics. 2002;20(9):629-37
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - drug therapy - economics - physiopathology
Clinical Trials as Topic
Cost of Illness
Disease Progression
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Galantamine - economics - therapeutic use
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Needs and Demand - economics
Health Services Research
Humans
Institutionalization - economics
Long-Term Care - economics
Models, Econometric
Nootropic Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Probability
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden
Abstract
Like other developed countries with aging populations, Sweden is expecting large increases in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and corresponding escalations in the cost of care for patients with this disease. Galantamine, a new acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and nicotinic modulator, has proved effective in managing patients with Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials.
To estimate the long-term health and economic impact of galantamine from the perspective of the public health payer in Sweden.
The Assessment of Health Economics in Alzheimer's Disease (AHEAD) model compares galantamine treatment with no pharmacologic treatment. It consists of a module based on trial data followed by a projection module that uses the trial results to predict the time until patients require full-time care (FTC) or until their death. Forecasts were made for up to 10 years. The model was customised to Sweden by using Swedish resource use profiles obtained from the literature.
Galantamine is predicted to reduce the time patients require FTC by almost 10%. Approximately 5.6 patients with mild-to-moderate disease would need to be treated to avoid one year of FTC. This would result in savings averaging 27 436 Swedish kronas (SEK) [3131 euros (EUR)] per patient over 10 years (1998 values). To avoid one year of FTC, 3.9 patients with moderate disease would need to be treated, with savings averaging SEK49 019 (EUR 5594) per patient over 10.5 years. Sensitivity analyses of key parameters, such as proportion of patients needing FTC treated in the community, cost of care in an institution, cost of FTC care in the community, the price of galantamine, and the discount rate, found savings with galantamine would occur under most circumstances.
Galantamine can increase the time before patients require FTC, and may also lead to savings as treatment costs are offset by reductions in other healthcare expenditures and the costs associated with FTC.
PubMed ID
12141890 View in PubMed
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Barriers to treating depression in the family physician's office.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174558
Source
Can J Commun Ment Health. 2004;23(1):37-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Baukje Miedema
Sue Tatemichi
Roanne Thomas-Maclean
Janet Stoppard
Author Affiliation
Dalhousie University, Everett Chalmers Regional Hospital.
Source
Can J Commun Ment Health. 2004;23(1):37-46
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antidepressive Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Canada
Counseling - supply & distribution
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Family Practice
Health Services Accessibility
Health services needs and demand - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Patient Care Team - economics - statistics & numerical data
Patient Compliance - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Physician-Patient Relations
Primary Health Care - economics - statistics & numerical data
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This qualitative research aims to understand, from the standpoint of the family physician, the barriers to treating depression in the office setting. Three primary barriers to treating depression in the family physician's office were identified: systemic, physician-related, and patient-related. The systemic barriers involved the shortage of qualified, publicly-funded counsellors, lack of locally available counselling, and the cost of medication. Physician-related barriers included lack of time and expertise, and inadequacies of the reimbursement system. Patient-related barriers were rooted in the stigma attached to depression and failure to comply with treatment.
PubMed ID
15920881 View in PubMed
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Booming prescription drug expenditure: a population-based analysis of age dynamics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172853
Source
Med Care. 2005 Oct;43(10):996-1008
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
Steven G Morgan
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. morgan@chspr.ubc.ca
Source
Med Care. 2005 Oct;43(10):996-1008
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
British Columbia
Child
Child, Preschool
Databases, Factual
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data - trends
Drug Utilization - economics - statistics & numerical data - trends
Financing, Personal - statistics & numerical data - trends
Health Expenditures - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Middle Aged
Population Dynamics
Prescription Fees - statistics & numerical data - trends
Abstract
Prescription drug expenditures in North America have nearly doubled in the past 5 years, creating intense pressure for all public and private benefits managers and policymakers.
The objective of this study was to describe age-specific drug expenditure trends from 1996 to 2002 for the Canadian province of British Columbia.
This study shows changes in expenditures per capita quantified for 5 age categories: residents aged 0 to 19, 20 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 84, and 85 and older. The cost impacts of 7 determinants of prescription drug expenditures are quantified.
This study describes population-based, patient-specific pharmaceutical data showing the type, quantity, and cost of every prescription drug purchased by virtually all residents of British Columbia.
Population-wide expenditures per capita grew at a rate of 11.6% per annum. Growth was primarily driven by the selection of more costly drugs per course of treatment and increases in the number concomitant treatments received per patient. Population aging did not have a major impact on expenditures. However, expenditure per capita grew most rapid among residents aged 45 to 64, the cohort that expended most over the period. The aging of this demographic cohort may threaten the financial viability of age-based drug benefit programs.
PubMed ID
16166869 View in PubMed
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The burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126333
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2012 Nov;23(11):2591-600
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
J-E Tarride
R B Hopkins
W D Leslie
S. Morin
J D Adachi
A. Papaioannou
L. Bessette
J P Brown
R. Goeree
Author Affiliation
Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH) Research Institute, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 25 Main Street West, Suite 2000, Hamilton, ON, L8P 1H1, Canada. tarride@mcmaster.ca
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2012 Nov;23(11):2591-600
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Bone Density Conservation Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Cost of Illness
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Emergency Service, Hospital - economics - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Home Care Services - economics - statistics & numerical data
Hospitalization - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Long-Term Care - economics
Male
Middle Aged
Osteoporosis - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Osteoporotic Fractures - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Prevalence
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
To update the 1993 burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada, administrative and community data were used to calculate the 2010 costs of osteoporosis at $2.3 billion in Canada or 1.3% of Canada's healthcare expenditures. Prevention of fractures in high-risk individuals is key to decrease the financial burden of osteoporosis.
Since the 1996 publication of the burden of osteoporosis in 1993 in Canada, the population has aged and the management of osteoporosis has changed. The study purpose was to estimate the current burden of illness due to osteoporosis in Canadians aged 50 and over.
Analyses were conducted using five national administrative databases from the Canadian Institute for Health Information for the fiscal-year ending March 31 2008 (FY 2007/2008). Gaps in national data were supplemented by provincial and community data extrapolated to national levels. Osteoporosis-related fractures were identified using a combination of most responsible diagnosis at discharge and intervention codes. Fractures associated with severe trauma codes were excluded. Costs, expressed in 2010 dollars, were calculated for osteoporosis-related hospitalizations, emergency care, same day surgeries, rehabilitation, continuing care, homecare, long-term care, prescription drugs, physician visits, and productivity losses. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to measure the impact on the results of key assumptions.
Osteoporosis-related fractures were responsible for 57,413 acute care admissions and 832,594 hospitalized days in FY 2007/2008. Acute care costs were estimated at $1.2 billion. When outpatient care, prescription drugs, and indirect costs were added, the overall yearly cost of osteoporosis was over $2.3 billion for the base case analysis and as much as $3.9 billion if a proportion of Canadians were assumed to be living in long-term care facilities due to osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that affects a large segment of the adult population and results in a substantial economic burden to the Canadian society.
Notes
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2008 Mar;19(3):269-7618060586
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2008 Jan;19(1):79-8617641811
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2009 May;20(5):703-1418802659
Cites: CMAJ. 2009 Sep 1;181(5):265-7119654194
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2010 Aug;21(8):1317-2219802507
Cites: CMAJ. 2010 Nov 23;182(17):1864-7320940232
Cites: Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2011 Mar 1;9(2):111-2321271750
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2011 Jun;22(6):1835-4421165602
Cites: Age Ageing. 2011 Sep;40(5):602-721775335
Cites: J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Oct;26(10):2411-821710615
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2012 Jun;23(6):1757-6821927921
Cites: CMAJ. 2002 Nov 12;167(10 Suppl):S1-3412427685
Cites: J Bone Miner Res. 1997 Jan;12(1):24-359240722
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2005 Feb;16(2):222-815232678
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2005 Mar;16 Suppl 2:S8-S1715378232
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec;16(12):1475-8016217587
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2007 Jan;18(1):77-8417048064
Cites: JAMA. 2007 Nov 28;298(20):2381-818042915
Cites: Contemp Clin Trials. 2008 Mar;29(2):194-21017766187
PubMed ID
22398854 View in PubMed
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Childhood predictors of use and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24 years: findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136023
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;50(4):406-15, 415.e1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
David Gyllenberg
Andre Sourander
Solja Niemelä
Hans Helenius
Lauri Sillanmäki
Terja Ristkari
Jorma Piha
Kirsti Kumpulainen
Tuula Tamminen
Irma Moilanen
Fredrik Almqvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. david.gyllenberg@helsinki.fi
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;50(4):406-15, 415.e1
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Affective Symptoms - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Age Factors
Antidepressive Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Conduct Disorder - diagnosis - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Costs and Cost Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Registries
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24 years.
A total of 5,547 subjects from a nation-wide birth cohort were linked to the National Prescription Register. Information about parent- and teacher-reported conduct, hyperkinetic and emotional symptoms, and self-reported depressive symptoms was gathered at age 8 years. The main outcome measure was national register-based lifetime information about purchases of antidepressants between ages 8 and 24 years. In addition, antidepressant costs were analyzed using a Heckman maximum likelihood model.
In all, 8.8% of males and 13.8% of females had used antidepressants between age 13 and 24 years. Among males, conduct problems independently predicted later antidepressant use. In both genders, self-reported depressive symptoms and living in other than a family with two biological parent at age 8 years independently predicted later antidepressant use. Significant gender interactions were found for conduct and hyperkinetic problems, indicating that more males who had these problems at age 8 have used antidepressants compared with females with the same problems.
Childhood psychopathology predicts use of antidepressants, but the type of childhood psychopathology predicting antidepressant use is different among males and females.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2011 Nov;14(4):9721862486
PubMed ID
21421180 View in PubMed
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Chronic catastrophes: exploring the concentration and sustained nature of ambulatory prescription drug expenditures in the population of British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153238
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Mar;68(5):919-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Gillian E Hanley
Steve Morgan
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3. ghanley@chspr.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Mar;68(5):919-24
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Ambulatory Care - economics
Analysis of Variance
British Columbia
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Databases, Factual
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Drug Utilization - economics - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Prescription Drugs - economics
Socioeconomic Factors
Universal Coverage
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous research has shown that a small proportion of the population accounts for a substantial proportion of spending on physician and hospital services. Much less is known about the high-cost users of ambulatory prescription medicines. We investigate the concentration and sustained nature of ambulatory prescription drug expenditures among residents of British Columbia, Canada in 2001 and 2004. Linking person-specific administrative data from several sources, we examine the demographics, socio-economic status, and health status of high-cost ambulatory pharmaceutical users and the extent that high-cost pharmaceutical use was sustained, at the individual level, from 2001 to 2004. The top 5% of users were responsible for 48% of ambulatory prescription expenditures in the province. A significant burden of morbidity, as well as sustained high expenditures, characterized these users. They were older, more likely to be female, more likely to be of low income, and more likely to be hospitalized and die within the year of study than other pharmaceutical users and non-users. Our results suggest that careful consideration should be given to the long-term financial burdens and access barriers created by pharmaceutical insurance policies that rely heavily on private payments by individuals. Our focus is on costs associated with ambulatory prescription drug use, however, had we included information on the cost of prescription drugs used in hospitals, we would likely have detected an even stronger relationship between high-cost pharmaceutical use and poor health status.
PubMed ID
19135288 View in PubMed
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128 records – page 1 of 13.