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839 records – page 1 of 84.

3-year follow-up of patients randomised in the metoprolol in dilated cardiomyopathy trial. The Metoprolol in Dilated Cardiomyopathy (MDC) Trial Study Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10861
Source
Lancet. 1998 Apr 18;351(9110):1180-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-18-1998

5-FU split dose; a phase I/II and pharmacokinetic study of a different schedule of the Nordic regimen in advanced colorectal carcinoma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18358
Source
Anticancer Res. 2003 Mar-Apr;23(2C):1789-94
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ake Berglund
G�¶ran Carlsson
Bengt Gustavsson
Jan-Erik Fr�¶din
Peter Ragnhammar
Bengt Glimelius
Author Affiliation
Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Uppsala, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden. ake.berglund@onkologi.uu.se
Source
Anticancer Res. 2003 Mar-Apr;23(2C):1789-94
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic - administration & dosage - adverse effects - blood - pharmacokinetics
Colorectal Neoplasms - blood - drug therapy
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Female
Fluorouracil - administration & dosage - adverse effects - blood - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
PURPOSE: Despite more than four decades of fluoro-pyrimidine treatment in different cancers, the optimal schedule is still not known. The plasma half-life of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is extremely short and continuous infusion has gained popularity. In this study we explored whether repeated bolus 5-FU injections could improve the results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma, where no standard treatment was available, were included in the phase I study. The initial dose of 5-FU was 250 mg/m2 with 30 mg/m2 leucovorin, repeated three hours later. Treatments were repeated every week. Twenty-six patients were recruited in the following phase II after maximal-tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. Plasma was collected for 5-FU pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Diarrhoea was the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and was reached at 450 mg/m2. One complete and three partial responses (24%) were seen in the phase II study at 400 mg/m2. In addition, several patients had lasting subjective improvements. The treatments were well-tolerated but accumulated toxicity was seen after several months. Dose intensity was 89% after four months of treatment. A great interpatient variability was seen in 5-FU pharmacokinetics. The plasma AUC correlated with the 5-FU dose and toxicity, but not with the tumour response. CONCLUSION: A split of the 5-FU push bolus injection is possible with maintained treatment activity and surprisingly high doses can be tolerated; a weekly dose intensity of 800 mg/m2 could be reached compared with 500 mg/m2 in the standard Nordic FLv schedule.
PubMed ID
12820460 View in PubMed
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A 26-week, prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, multicenter study to evaluate the effect of an escalating-dose regimen of trandolapril on change in blood pressure in treatment-naive and concurrently treated adult hypertensive subjects (TRAIL).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163832
Source
Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):305-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Richard H Tytus
Ellen D Burgess
Linda Assouline
Anita Vanjaka
Author Affiliation
Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):305-15
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Antihypertensive Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Calcium Channel Blockers - therapeutic use
Canada
Diuretics - therapeutic use
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy
Indoles - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Male
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care
Prospective Studies
Verapamil - therapeutic use
Abstract
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an escalating-dose regimen of trandolapril in subjects with stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension.
This was a 26-week, prospective, open-label,multicenter study in Canadian primary care centers. Subjects with hypertension who were treatment naive or whose disease was uncontrolled on current first-line antihypertensive monotherapy were treated with trandolapril for 26 weeks alone or in addition to their current treatment. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) >or=140/90 mm Hg in subjects with no other risk factors or >or=130/80 mm Hg in subjects with diabetes or kidney disease. Trandolapril therapy was initiated at 1 mg/d and was titrated as required to 2 or 4 mg at 4 and 9 weeks after initiation of treatment, respectively, in those not achieving BP targets. At 14 weeks after treatment initiation, subjects not achieving BP targets could receive a combination of trandolapril 4 mg plus a calcium channel blocker (verapamil 240 mg) with or without a diuretic. Primary outcome was the percentage of patients reaching target BP after 14 weeks.
A total of 1683 subjects from 192 general practice clinics across Canada completed the 14-week trandolapril dose-optimization phase, and 1650 completed the full 26-week follow-up. Mean (SD) age was 56.6 (12.6) years, and 49.2% of the subjects were men. At baseline, 82.4% (1359/1650) of subjects were antihypertensive-treatment naive. At the trial end, 73.4% (95% CI, 70.9-75.9) of subjects achieved a target level of SBP/DBP
PubMed ID
17472822 View in PubMed
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The 2004 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part II--Therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181498
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2004 Jan;20(1):41-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2004
Author
Nadia A Khan
Finlay A McAlister
Norman R C Campbell
Ross D Feldman
Simon Rabkin
Jeff Mahon
Richard Lewanczuk
Kelly B Zarnke
Brenda Hemmelgarn
Marcel Lebel
Mitchell Levine
Carol Herbert
Author Affiliation
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2004 Jan;20(1):41-54
Date
Jan-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antihypertensive Agents - administration & dosage
Blood Pressure Determination - standards
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - prevention & control
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Therapy, Combination
Evidence-Based Medicine - standards
Female
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Societies, Medical
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension in adults.
For patients who require pharmacological therapy for hypertension, a number of antihypertensive agents may be used. Randomized trials evaluating first-line therapy with diuretics, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha-blockers, centrally acting agents or angiotensin receptor antagonists were reviewed. Also, randomized trials evaluating other agents, such as statins or acetylsalicylic acid, in patients with hypertension were reviewed. Changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were the primary outcomes of interest. In addition, other relevant outcomes such as development of end-stage renal disease or changes in blood pressure were examined where appropriate.
MEDLINE searches were conducted from November 2001 to October 2003 to update the 2001 Recommendations for the management of hypertension. Reference lists were scanned, experts were contacted, and the personal files of the subgroup members and authors were used to identify additional published studies. All relevant articles were reviewed and appraised independently, using prespecified levels of evidence by content and methodology experts.
This document contains detailed recommendations and supporting evidence on treatment thresholds, target blood pressures and choice of agents for hypertensive patients with or without comorbidities. Lifestyle modifications are a key component of any antiatherosclerotic management strategy and detailed recommendations are contained in a separate document. Key recommendations for pharmacotherapy include the following: treatment thresholds and targets should take into account each individual's global atherosclerotic risk, target organ damage and comorbidities, with particular attention to systolic blood pressure; blood pressure should be lowered to 140/90 mmHg or less in all patients, and 130/80 mmHg or less in those with diabetes mellitus or renal disease (125/75 mmHg or less in those with nondiabetic renal disease and more than 1 g of proteinuria per day); most adults with hypertension require more than one agent to achieve target blood pressures; for adults without compelling indications for other agents, initial therapy should include thiazide diuretics; other agents appropriate for first-line therapy for diastolic hypertension with or without systolic hypertension include beta-blockers (in those younger than 60 years), ACE inhibitors (in non-Blacks), long-acting dihydropyridine CCBs or angiotensin receptor antagonists; other agents appropriate for first-line therapy for isolated systolic hypertension include long-acting dihydropyridine CCBs or angiotensin receptor antagonists; certain comorbidities provide compelling indications for first-line use of other agents: in patients with angina, recent myocardial infarction or heart failure, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy; in patients with diabetes mellitus, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists (or thiazides in patients with diabetes mellitus without albuminuria) are appropriate first-line therapies; and in patients with mild to moderate nondiabetic renal disease, ACE inhibitors are recommended; all hypertensive patients should have their fasting lipids screened and those with dyslipidemia should be treated using the thresholds, targets and agents as per the Recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease; and selected patients with hypertension should also receive statin and/or acetylsalicylic acid therapy.
All recommendations were graded according to the strength of the evidence and voted on by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Evidence-Based Recommendations Task Force. Individuals with irreconcilable competing interests (declared by all members, compiled and circulated before the meeting) relative to any specific recommendation were excluded from voting on that recommendation. Only recommendations achieving at least 70% consensus are reported here. These guidelines will continue to be updated annually.
PubMed ID
14968142 View in PubMed
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Abstinence-orientated buprenorphine replacement therapy for young adults in out-patient counselling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82423
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2006 Mar;25(2):123-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Kornør Hege
Waal Helge
Ali Robert L
Author Affiliation
Unit for Addiction Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway. hege.kornor@kunnskapssenteret.no
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2006 Mar;25(2):123-30
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ambulatory Care Facilities
Buprenorphine - administration & dosage
Counseling
Drug Administration Schedule
Female
Humans
Male
Narcotic Antagonists - administration & dosage
Norway
Opioid-Related Disorders - drug therapy
Outpatients
Patient compliance
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
This study assessed treatment retention, compliance and completion of a 9-month buprenorphine replacement programme. In addition, changes in drug use and other relevant variables, as well as predictors of completion, were examined. Seventy-five opioid-dependent out-patients (mean age 26 years; 33% females) who aimed for opioid abstinence were enrolled into the study. Assessments were undertaken prior to buprenorphine induction and again at 3, 6 and 9 months. Forty patients (53%) completed the buprenorphine programme. At 9 months, 67 patients (87%) were still in counselling. Mean attendance rates for buprenorphine dosing and counselling sessions were 0.91 and 0.74, respectively. There were significant and persistent reductions in drug use during treatment with, however, a reversed tendency in the 9th month. Psychiatric problems escalated at 9 months, and three patients died during the detoxification phase. Completion was predicted by fewer previous treatment episodes. Detoxification from buprenorphine is associated with substantial psychological distress and an increased death risk. Buprenorphine replacement therapy should be continued until the patient chooses to leave, and close monitoring during the detoxification phase is essential.
PubMed ID
16627301 View in PubMed
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Acetyldinaline: a new oral cytostatic drug with impressive differential activity against leukemic cells and normal stem cells--preclinical studies in a relevant rat model for human acute myelocytic leukemia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23997
Source
Cancer Res. 1993 Jul 1;53(13):3008-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-1993
Author
H M el-Beltagi
A C Martens
P. Lelieveld
E A Haroun
A. Hagenbeek
Author Affiliation
Department of Hemato-Oncology TNO, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Source
Cancer Res. 1993 Jul 1;53(13):3008-14
Date
Jul-1-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Animals
Antineoplastic Agents - pharmacology
Bone Marrow - drug effects
Bone Marrow Cells
Cell Differentiation - drug effects
Cell Survival - drug effects
Clone Cells
Comparative Study
Disease Models, Animal
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Evaluation
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Hematopoietic Stem Cells - cytology - drug effects
Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute - drug therapy - pathology
Male
Phenylenediamines - pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Abstract
Acetyldinaline [CI-994; GOE 5549; PD 123 654; 4-acetylamino-N-(2'-aminophenyl)-benzamide] is the acetylated derivative form of the original compound Dinaline (GOE 1734; PD 104 208). The efficacy and toxicity of Acetyldinaline for remission-induction treatment of leukemia were evaluated and compared with those observed in previous studies of Dinaline in the Brown Norway acute myelocytic leukemia, as a preclinical model for human acute myelocytic leukemia. There were three treatment groups. Leukemic animals received either 1 or 2 courses of 5 daily p.o. administrations of Acetyldinaline with a "full dose" of 23.7 mg/kg once daily (first group), a twice daily "half dose" of 11.85 mg/kg with an interval of 8 h (second group), or a "half dose" of 11.85 mg/kg once daily (third group). The drug-free interval between the 2 courses was 2 or 9 days. With repeated daily p.o. administrations of 23.7 mg/kg either in a single daily dose or a split daily dose of 2 x 11.85 mg/kg for 1 course, at least an 8-log leukemic cell kill was achieved. In contrast, with these treatment schedules, less than a 1-log cell kill of normal pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) in the femoral bone marrow was found. Split daily dose treatment was more effective resulting in 37.5% cures, while no cures were observed with the single daily treatment for one course. Treatment with single daily dose of 23.7 mg/kg or a split daily dose of 2 x 11.85 mg/kg for 2 courses, with either a 2- or 9-day interval in between, resulted in lethal toxicity in most of rats. This result was comparable with that previously observed after equimolar doses of Dinaline (20 mg/kg). The half-dose once daily treatment with Acetyldinaline (11.85 mg/kg) for 1 or 2 cycles resulted in about a 4.5 or > 8-log leukemic cell kill, respectively. Toxic side effects, i.e., damage to the gastro-intestinal tract and hemorrhages in the lungs, were more pronounced with full dose either in the single or the split daily dose regimen. No significant toxicity was observed at the half-dose treatment once daily. In conclusion, the impressive differential activity against leukemic cells and normal stem cells observed in this relevant rat model for human acute myelocytic leukemia warrants the introduction of this compound in clinical phase I/II studies.
PubMed ID
8319208 View in PubMed
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Aclarubicin plus cytosine arabinoside versus daunorubicin plus cytosine arabinoside in previously untreated patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a Danish national phase III trial. The Danish Society of Hematology Study Group on AML, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24824
Source
Leukemia. 1991 Jun;5(6):510-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1991
Author
O P Hansen
J. Pedersen-Bjergaard
J. Ellegaard
H. Brincker
A M Boesen
B E Christensen
A. Drivsholm
E. Hippe
H. Jans
K B Jensen
Author Affiliation
Finsen Institute-Rigshospitalet, Department of Hematology L, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Leukemia. 1991 Jun;5(6):510-6
Date
Jun-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aclarubicin - administration & dosage
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Amsacrine - administration & dosage
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols - therapeutic use
Chi-Square Distribution
Comparative Study
Cytarabine - administration & dosage
Daunorubicin - administration & dosage
Denmark
Drug Administration Schedule
Etoposide - administration & dosage
Humans
Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute - drug therapy - mortality
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Remission Induction
Survival Rate
Abstract
A regimen of aclarubicin (ACR) of 75 mg/m2 daily for 3 days plus a continuous intravenous infusion of cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) of 100 mg/m2 per day for 7 days was compared with daunorubicin (DNR) 45 mg/m2/day for 3 days plus ara-C for 7 days as first-line chemotherapy of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a randomized, nationwide Danish study. A total of 180 patients aged between 17 and 65 years were entered onto the protocol. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) were given five courses of intensive consolidation therapy consisting of two courses of high dose ara-C, two courses of amsacrine plus etoposide, and one course of DNR plus ara-C. Of 174 evaluable patients, 99 achieved CR. The rate of CR was significantly higher on ACR plus ara-C than on DNR plus ara-C [66% versus 50% (p = 0.043)] and decreased significantly with increasing age. The hematological toxicity was identical for the two regimens. A total of 83 patients entered consolidation therapy. At 4 years, 37% of patients with CR following ACR were still in remission compared with 33% following DNR (p = 0.48), and the total survival at 4 years was 29% versus 20% (p = 0.26). The duration of remission and total survival both decreased with increasing age. ACR plus ara-C seem at least as good or better than DNR plus ara-C as first-line chemotherapy of AML.
PubMed ID
2056774 View in PubMed
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Acute asthma in children and adolescents: should inhaled anticholinergics be added to beta(2)-agonists?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182008
Source
Am J Respir Med. 2003;2(2):109-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Laurie H Plotnick
Francine M Ducharme
Author Affiliation
Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. drplotnick@sympatico.ca
Source
Am J Respir Med. 2003;2(2):109-15
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Administration, Inhalation
Adolescent
Adrenergic beta-Agonists - administration & dosage
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - administration & dosage
Asthma - diagnosis - drug therapy
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholinergic Antagonists - administration & dosage
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Humans
Male
Prognosis
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Recurrence
Severity of Illness Index
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Children and adolescents experiencing acute exacerbations of asthma benefit from the use of beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (beta(2)-agonists) and systemic corticosteroids. However, there have been conflicting reports regarding the efficacy of inhaled anticholinergic agents. This article summarizes the evidence provided by randomized controlled trials studying the efficacy of adding inhaled anticholinergic agents to beta(2)-agonists in nonhospitalized children and adolescents with acute exacerbations of asthma. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials suggests that the addition of inhaled anticholinergic agents to beta(2)-agonists is beneficial in children and adolescents, particularly those with severe exacerbations of asthma. When given in repeated doses, the addition of inhaled anticholinergic agents to beta(2)-agonists improves lung function and reduces the risk of hospital admission by 25%. Several treatment regimens, namely ipratropium bromide (250 or 500 microg per dose) every 20-60 minutes for two to three doses have been tested with similar beneficial effects. The addition of a single dose of an inhaled anticholinergic agent to beta(2)-agonists improves lung function but does not prevent hospital admission. The review did not identify any beneficial effects of anticholinergic agents in children with nonsevere asthma. Use of anticholinergic agents was not associated with increase in the incidence of nausea, vomiting or tremor. In conclusion, the addition of repeated doses of an inhaled anticholinergic agent to inhaled beta(2)-agonist is indicated in the emergency room management of children and adolescents with acute asthma, particularly those with severe exacerbations.
PubMed ID
14720010 View in PubMed
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Acute conjunctivitis. A comparison of fusidic acid viscous eye drops and chloramphenicol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11748
Source
Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1993 Apr;71(2):165-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1993
Author
I. Hørven
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University, National Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
Source
Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1993 Apr;71(2):165-8
Date
Apr-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Chloramphenicol - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Comparative Study
Conjunctivitis - drug therapy - microbiology
Double-Blind Method
Drug Administration Schedule
Eye Infections, Bacterial - drug therapy
Female
Fusidic Acid - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Ophthalmic Solutions
Abstract
Fucidic acid viscous eye drops 1% given twice daily was compared with chloramphenicol eye drops 0.5% given 6 times daily in patients with acute conjunctivitis. Patients were recruited from 38 general practitioners in Norway. The mean duration of treatment was 6.6 days for Fucidic acid, 6.2 days for chloramphenicol. There was no major differences between the two groups in the bacteriological findings, and there was no significant difference in response to treatment. The use of fusidic acid in a carbomer vehicle as in Fucithalmic, has proved to give a long-lasting antibiotic concentration in the tear fluid, which allows the preferable twice daily application.
PubMed ID
8333258 View in PubMed
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839 records – page 1 of 84.