In December 2012, an outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness occurred in a geographical distinct area in Denmark covering 368 households. A combined microbiological, epidemiological and environmental investigation was initiated to understand the outbreak magnitude, pathogen(s) and vehicle in order to control the outbreak. Norovirus GII.4 New Orleans 2009 variant was detected in 15 of 17 individual stool samples from 14 households. Norovirus genomic material from water samples was detected and quantified and sequencing of longer parts of the viral capsid region (>1000 nt) were applied to patient and water samples. All five purposely selected water samples tested positive for norovirus GII in levels up to 1.8×10(4) genomic units per 200 ml. Identical norovirus sequences were found in all 5 sequenced stool samples and 1 sequenced water sample, a second sequenced water sample showed 1 nt (
Cites: Rev Med Virol. 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):243-5211479930
There are relatively few studies on the association between disturbances in drinking water services and symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Health Call Centres data concerning GI illness may be a useful source of information. This study investigates if there is an increased frequency of contacts with the Health Call Centre (HCC) concerning gastrointestinal symptoms at times when there is a risk of impaired water quality due to disturbances at water works or the distribution network. The study was conducted in Gothenburg, a Swedish city with 0.5 million inhabitants with a surface water source of drinking water and two water works. All HCC contacts due to GI symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting or abdominal pain) were recorded for a three-year period, including also sex, age, and geocoded location of residence. The number of contacts with the HCC in the affected geographical areas were recorded during eight periods of disturbances in the water works (e.g. short stops of chlorine dosing), six periods of large disturbances in the distribution network (e.g. pumping station failure or pipe breaks with major consequences), and 818 pipe break and leak repairs over a three-year period. For each period of disturbance the observed number of calls was compared with the number of calls during a control period without disturbances in the same geographical area. In total about 55, 000 calls to the HCC due to GI symptoms were recorded over the three-year period, 35 per 1000 inhabitants and year, but much higher (>200) for children
Water and Environmental Engineering Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Institute for Marine Operations and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Ålesund, Larsgårdsvegen 2, 6009 Ålesund, Norway. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Formulating effective management intervention measures for water supply systems requires investigation of potential long-term impacts. This study applies an integrated multiple regression, random forest regression, and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) modelling approach to assess the effect of climate-driven precipitation on pathogen infection risks in three drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) in Norway. Pathogen removal efficacies of treatment steps were calculated using process models. The results indicate that while the WTPs investigated generally meet the current water safety guidelines, risks of Norovirus and Cryptosporidium infection may be of concern in the future. The pathogen infections attributable to current projections of average precipitation in the study locations may be low. However, the pathogen increases in the drinking water sources due to the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in the catchments could substantially increase the risks of pathogen infections. In addition, without optimal operation of the UV disinfection steps in the WTPs, both the present and potential future infection risks could be high. Therefore, the QMRA models demonstrated the need for improved optimization of key treatment steps in the WTPs, as well as implementation of stringent regulations in protecting raw water sources in the country. The variety of models applied and the pathogen: E. coli used in the study introduce some uncertainties in the results, thus, management decisions that will be based on the results should consider these limitations. Nevertheless, the integration of predictive models with QMRA as applied in this study could be a useful method for climate impact assessment in the water supply industry.
Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.
Here, we document microbial communities in rapid gravity filtration units, specifically serial rapid sand filters (RSFs), termed prefilters (PFs) and after- filters (AFs), fed with anoxic groundwaters low in organic carbon to prepare potable waters. A comprehensive 16S rRNA-based amplicon sequencing survey revealed a core RSF microbiome comprising few bacterial taxa (29-30 genera) dominated by Nitrospirae, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria, with a strikingly high abundance (75-87?18%) across five examined waterworks in Denmark. Lineages within the Nitrospira genus consistently comprised the second most and most abundant fraction in PFs (27?23%) and AFs (45.2?23%), respectively, and were far more abundant than typical proteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, suggesting a physiology beyond nitrite oxidation for Nitrospira. Within the core taxa, sequences closely related to types with ability to oxidize ammonium, nitrite, iron, manganese and methane as primary growth substrate were identified and dominated in both PFs (73.6?6%) and AFs (61.4?21%), suggesting their functional importance. Surprisingly, operational taxonomic unit richness correlated strongly and positively with sampling location in the drinking water treatment plant (from PFs to AFs), and a weaker negative correlation held for evenness. Significant spatial heterogeneity in microbial community composition was detected in both PFs and AFs, and was higher in the AFs. This is the first comprehensive documentation of microbial community diversity in RSFs treating oligotrophic groundwaters. We have identified patterns of local spatial heterogeneity and dispersal, documented surprising energy-diversity relationships, observed a large and diverse Nitrospira fraction and established a core RSF microbiome.
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Using a relational approach, I examine several cultural dimensions involved in household water access and use in Newtok, Alaska. I describe the patterns that emerge around domestic water access and use, as well as the subjective lived experiences of water insecurity including risk perceptions, and the daily work and hydro-social relationships involved in accessing water from various sources. I found that Newtok residents haul water in limited amounts from a multitude of sources, both treated and untreated, throughout the year. Household water access is tied to hydro-social relationships predicated on sharing and reciprocity, particularly when the primary treated water access point is unavailable. Older boys and young men are primarily responsible for hauling water, and this role appears to be important to male Yupik identity. Many interviewees described preferring to drink untreated water, a practice that appears related to cultural constructions of natural water sources as pure and self-purifying, as well as concerns about the safety of treated water. Concerns related to the health consequences of low water access appear to differ by gender and age, with women and elders expressing greater concern than men. These preliminary results point to the importance of understanding the cultural dimensions involved in household water access and use. I argue that institutional responses to water insecurity need to incorporate such cultural dimensions into solutions aimed at increasing household access to and use of water.
Good hygienic quality of surface waters is essential for drinking water production, irrigation of crops and recreation. Predictions of how and when microbes are transported by rivers are needed to protect downstream water users. In this study we tested the new process-based INCA-Pathogens model in the agricultural Loimijoki River basin (3138km2) in Finland, and we quantified ecosystem services of water purification and water provisioning for drinking and recreation purposes under different scenarios. INCA is a catchment scale process based model to calculate pollutant transfer from terrestrial environment and point sources to the catchment outlet. A clear gradient was observed in the numbers of faecal coliforms along the River Loimijoki. The highest bacterial counts were detected in the middle part of the main stream immediately after small industries and municipal sewage treatment plants. In terms of model performance, the INCA-Pathogen model was able to produce faecal coliform counts and seasonality both in the low pollution level sampling points and in the high pollution level sampling points. The model was sensitive to the parameters defining light decay in river water and in soil compartment, as well as to the amount of faecal coliforms in the manure spread on the fields. The modeling results showed that the number of faecal coliforms repeatedly exceeded 1000 bacteria 100ml-1. Moreover, results lead to the following conclusions: 1) Climate change does not cause a major threat to hygienic water quality as higher precipitation increases runoff and causes diluting effect in the river, 2) Intensification of agriculture is not a threat as long as animal density remains relatively low and environmental legislation is followed, 3) More intensive agriculture without environmental legislation causes a threat especially in tributaries with high field percentage and animal density, and 4) Hygienic water quality in the River Loimijoki can best be improved by improving sewage treatment. We conclude that this catchment scale model is a useful tool for addressing catchment management and water treatment planning issues.
A multi-residue screening method for simultaneous measurement of a wide range of micropollutants in drinking water (DW) resources was developed. The method was applied in a field study in central Sweden on water from source to tap, including samples of surface water (upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment plant, WWTP), intake water before and after a DW treatment plant (DWTP, pilot and full-scale), treated DW leaving the plant and tap water at end users. Low detection limits (low ng?L-1 levels) were achieved by using large sample volumes (5 L) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). In total, 134 different micropollutants were analyzed, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), drug-related compounds, food additives, and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Of these 134 micropollutants, 41 were detected in at least one sample, with individual concentrations ranging from sub ng?L-1 levels to ~80?ng?L-1. Two solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (Oasis HLB and Bond-Elut ENV) were shown to be complementary in the field study, with three compounds detected exclusively using HLB. The total concentration in treated drinking water (56-57?ng?L-1) was at a similar level as upstream from the WWTP (79-90?ng?L-1). The composition of micropollutants changed along the water path, to a higher fraction of food additives and PFASs. Median treatment efficiency in the full-scale DWTP was close to 0%, but with high variability for individual compounds. In contrast, median treatment efficiency in the pilot-scale DWTP was ~90% when using nanofiltration followed by a freshly installed granulated active carbon (GAC) filter.
Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.
Enteric viruses transmitted via the faecal-oral route occur in high concentrations in wastewater and may contaminate drinking water sources and cause disease. In order to quantify enteric adenovirus and norovirus genotypes I and II (GI and GII) impacting a drinking source in Norway, samples of surface water (52), wastewater inlet (64) and outlet (59) were collected between January 2011 and April 2012. Samples were concentrated in two steps, using an electropositive disc filter and polyethylene glycol precipitation, followed by nucleic acid extraction and analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Virus was detected in 47/52 (90.4%) of surface water, 59/64 (92%) of wastewater inlet and 55/59 (93%) of wastewater outlet samples. Norovirus GI occurred in the highest concentrations in surface water (2.51e + 04) and adenovirus in wastewater (2.15e + 07). While adenovirus was the most frequently detected in all matrices, norovirus GI was more frequently detected in surface water and norovirus GII in wastewater. This study is the first in Norway to monitor both sewage and a drinking water source in parallel, and confirms the year-round presence of norovirus and adenovirus in a Norwegian drinking water source.