The cultural characteristics of 1220 Campylobacter strains from a variety of sources are described. Forty-two were identified as Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (Véron & Chatelain, 1973), 1120 as members of the C. jejuni/C. coli group, and 58 did not conform to any known description. Sixteen of the latter strains had the basic characteristics of C. fetus but were atypical in certain other respects. The other 42 strains had the thermophilic characteristics of the jejuni/coli group, but were resistant to nalidixic acid and had other features in common; it is possible that they represent a new species. They were isolated from 19% of locally caught wild seagulls but only occasionally from other animals and man.Growth at 25 degrees C clearly distinguished strains of C. fetus from those of the jejuni/coli and the nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic (NARTC) groups. Maximum growth temperature was less reliable for this purpose, and 43 degrees C was found to be better than the traditional 42 degrees C. By arranging the results of three tests (tolerance to 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, growth at 30.5 and 45.5 degrees C) serially in the form of a schema comprising nine categories, the jejuni/coli strains fell into two main groups resembling the Institute Pasteur C. jejuni and C. coli type strains, but these groups could not be clearly defined owing to the existence of strains with intermediate characteristics.Most of the strains from cattle resembled C. jejuni, whereas those from pigs resembled C. coli; poultry strains occupied a more intermediate position. Strains from man and other animals were of mixed types, but most human strains resembled C. jejuni rather than C. coli. The type distribution pattern that most nearly matched that of human indigenous strains was given by a half-and-half mixture of strains from cattle and poultry.
Cites: J Pediatr. 1973 Mar;82(3):493-54572934
Cites: Br Med J. 1977 Jul 2;2(6078):9-11871765
Cites: Can J Microbiol. 1977 Sep;23(9):1311-371191
Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative short rod-shaped bacteria, which is a part of the indigenous flora of the oral cavity of many animals other than man. The number of reports on cases of infections with this bacterium due to animal bites and/or scratches, bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, sepsis due to this organism and death caused by the bacteria have been increasing in recent years. We investigated P. multocida in the hair and oral cavity of 3 dogs and 29 cats according to the classification of Mutters et al.. We also studied the relationship between the carrier rate for Pasteurella in the oral cavity and kissing of pets in 24 pet owners (3 dogs and 11 cats). No P. multocida was isolated from the hair of neither dogs nor cats. One strain of P. multocida subsp. multocida and two strains of P. stomatis, were isolated from the oral cavity of dogs, and 35 strains of Pasteurella were isolated from the oral cavity of cats. Two strains of P. multocida subsp. multocida, whose biochemical properties were different, were detected in the oral cavity of one cat. In three cats, Pasteurella other than P. multocida subsp. multocida was isolated from the same oral cavity. No Pasteurella was detected in the oral cavity of 19 pet owners who had not kissed their cats, whereas P. stomatis was isolated from the oral cavity of one of 2 pet owners who had kissed their cats and in 2 of 3 pet owners who had kissed their dogs (the same bacteria was isolated from a dog that was being kept by some of these positive pet owners).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Isolates from the intestinal Escherichia coli flora of 28 members of five families (including parents, children, and household pets) in Amherst, Massachusetts, and Rochester, New York, were characterized by the electrophoretic mobilities of 12 enzymes to estimate the extent of sharing of strains among associated and unassociated hosts. Among the 655 isolates examined, 60 different combinations of electromorphs (electrophoretic types or ETs), each representing a distinctive multilocus genotype, were identified, of which 85% were recovered from only a single individual. On average, 11% of the ETs isolated from the same family were shared by two or more members; 4.9% of ETs were shared among members of unassociated families living in the same city; and only 2% were shared by families in different cities. All three ETs that were recovered from multiple hosts in the present study are widespread clones that have been isolated from many other host individuals in North America and Sweden.
To determine whether dogs that visited human health-care facilities were at greater risk of acquiring certain health-care-associated pathogens, compared with dogs performing animal-assisted interventions in other settings, and to identify specific behaviors of dogs associated with an increased risk of acquiring these pathogens.
Prospective cohort and nested case-control studies.
96 dogs that visited human health-care facilities and 98 dogs involved in other animal-assisted interventions.
Fecal samples and nasal swab specimens were collected from dogs at the time of recruitment and every 2 months for 1 year and were tested for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile, and other selected bacteria. Information was also obtained on facilities visited during animal-assisted interventions, dog diet, dog illnesses, and antimicrobial use within the home. At the end of the study, dog handlers were asked about the behavior of their dogs during visits to health-care facilities.
Rates of acquisition of MRSA and C difficile were 4.7 and 2.4 times as high, respectively, among dogs that visited human health-care facilities, compared with rates among dogs involved in other animal-assisted interventions. Among dogs that visited human health-care facilities, those that licked patients or accepted treats during visits were more likely to be positive for MRSA and C difficile than were dogs that did not lick patients or accept treats.
Results suggested that dogs that visited human health-care facilities were at risk of acquiring MRSA and C difficile, particularly when they licked patients or accepted treats during visits.
Sweden has a long tradition of monitoring occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in both animals and humans, but there currently is no organised and harmonized monitoring on carriage of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (pAmpC), or methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci e.g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci in healthy dogs in Sweden, and to phenotypically and genotypically characterize any identified isolates. It was shown that 0.9% (95% confident interval 0.3-2.7%) of the dogs (n?=?325) carried multi-resistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, but that no methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci could be detected. In conclusion, the occurrence of multi-drug resistant bacteria remains rare among healthy dogs in Sweden. In addition, the ESBL-producing E. coli identified showed genetic characteristics related to those reported from humans.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a pathogen of animals. To compare types of infections, clinical outcomes, and risk factors associated with MRSA in dogs with those associated with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections, we conducted a case-control study at 3 veterinary referral hospitals in the United States and Canada during 2001-2007. Risk factors analyzed were signalment, medical and surgical history, and infection site. Among 40 dogs with MRSA and 80 with MSSA infections, highest prevalence of both infections was found in skin and ears. Although most (92.3%) dogs with MRSA infections were discharged from the hospital, we found that significant risk factors for MRSA infection were receipt of antimicrobial drugs (odds ratio [OR] 3.84, p = 0.02), Beta-lactams (OR 3.58, p = 0.04), or fluoroquinolones (OR 5.34, p = 0.01), and intravenous catheterization (OR 3.72, p = 0.02). Prudent use of antimicrobial drugs in veterinary hospitals is advised.
Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from four dogs (11%) and four cats (33%) living with Danish human patients infected with C. jejuni. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed the occurrence of the same quinolone-resistant strain in a girl and her dog. C. jejuni isolates with closely related (>95% similarity) PFGE profiles occurred in humans and pets from different Danish counties.
This study assessed whether an association exists between household pets and peptic ulcer disease.
Canadian adults (n = 15,779) were asked about cats or dogs in their household and about history of peptic ulcer disease. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between pet ownership and a history of peptic ulcer disease, after adjustment for sociodemographic differences.
No relationship was observed between report of household pets and a history of peptic ulcer disease (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval = 0.95, 1.36).
In a large sample of Canadian adults, no association was observed between pet ownership and a history of peptic ulcer disease.
In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans.