In 1962, a simplified method of transvenously inserting an intracardiac electrode and implanting the whole pacemaker system under local anaesthesia was reported from the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm. This simplified method has been universally adopted and pacemakers are now probably implanted too freely in many places. In the Stockholm area pacemakers are implanted half as frequently as in the rest of Sweden and as often as in the United Kingdom.
The cultural characteristics of 1220 Campylobacter strains from a variety of sources are described. Forty-two were identified as Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (Véron & Chatelain, 1973), 1120 as members of the C. jejuni/C. coli group, and 58 did not conform to any known description. Sixteen of the latter strains had the basic characteristics of C. fetus but were atypical in certain other respects. The other 42 strains had the thermophilic characteristics of the jejuni/coli group, but were resistant to nalidixic acid and had other features in common; it is possible that they represent a new species. They were isolated from 19% of locally caught wild seagulls but only occasionally from other animals and man.Growth at 25 degrees C clearly distinguished strains of C. fetus from those of the jejuni/coli and the nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic (NARTC) groups. Maximum growth temperature was less reliable for this purpose, and 43 degrees C was found to be better than the traditional 42 degrees C. By arranging the results of three tests (tolerance to 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, growth at 30.5 and 45.5 degrees C) serially in the form of a schema comprising nine categories, the jejuni/coli strains fell into two main groups resembling the Institute Pasteur C. jejuni and C. coli type strains, but these groups could not be clearly defined owing to the existence of strains with intermediate characteristics.Most of the strains from cattle resembled C. jejuni, whereas those from pigs resembled C. coli; poultry strains occupied a more intermediate position. Strains from man and other animals were of mixed types, but most human strains resembled C. jejuni rather than C. coli. The type distribution pattern that most nearly matched that of human indigenous strains was given by a half-and-half mixture of strains from cattle and poultry.
Cites: J Pediatr. 1973 Mar;82(3):493-54572934
Cites: Br Med J. 1977 Jul 2;2(6078):9-11871765
Cites: Can J Microbiol. 1977 Sep;23(9):1311-371191
Hans Christian Geelmuyden (1861-1945) was amanuensis (assistant professor) at the Institute of Physiology, University of Oslo from 1889 to 1931. In 1897 he was awarded the degree "Doctor of Medicine" for his thesis "Om aceton som stofvexelprodukt" (On acetone as a metabolic product). The Nobel laureate Feodor Lynen referred to this thesis, which was also published in German, stating that Geelmuyden was the first to establish that ketone bodies are formed from fatty acids. Geelmuyden also established that acetone is metabolized in rabbits and dogs. Geelmuyden was a prolific writer on fat metabolism and diabetes and wrote a series of extensive reviews on these topics in Ergebnisse der Physiologie. Geelmuyden was active in the treatment of diabetic patients.
Experiments were conducted on 18 dogs using an in situ blood-perfused canine heart model. Intracoronary infusion of AMP resulted in increased ATP and total adenine nucleotide levels. On reperfusion following a 15-min period of ischemia, ATP and total adenine nucleotide levels were significantly higher than control. Most important, contractile function recovered more rapidly in the AMP-treated dogs. It is therefore concluded that the delayed functional recovery noted after periods of ischemia is likely to be a direct result of delayed ATP resynthesis.
A total of 2643 persons in 5 different regions were examined for toxoplasmosis by the immunofluorescence test and toxoplasmin skin test. The presence in the house of cats and dogs was taken into account. In two of the five regions under study there was revealed an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis in persons keeping cats; this confirmed the role of these animals as a source of toxoplasmosis infection. The absence of such increase in the incidence of the disease in other regions in explained by the character of buildings admitting migration of cats or the presence in the given region of other active sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis incidence in persons who kept or didn't keep dogs displayed no significant difference.
Under conditions of experimental myocardium infarction caused in dogs by ligation of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery, the activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in mitochondria of the cortex, cerebellum and medulla ablongata lowers most intensively on the first and fifth day after the appearance of acute myocardium infarction. Activation of the most important enzymes of the pentose-phosphate cycle (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and transketolase) which is clearly pronounced on the fifth day is observed in the mentioned sections. In the authors' opinions the above changes in the activity of the enzymes are due to the brain hypoxia which may be the main reason of disturbance in the function of the central nervous system under this disease.
The acute effects of ethanol (1.0 g/kg and 1.5 g/kg, n = 4 and n = 5, yielding blood concentrations of 1.3 +/- 0.2 mg/ml and 2.4 +/- 0.3 mg/ml) on myocardial perfusion were studied in anesthetized, thoracotomized, artificially ventilated dogs by using a radioactive microsphere technique. The control group (n = 5) received saline. The smaller dose of ethanol decreased perfusion in the left ventricular myocardium from 0.737 +/- 0.122 to 0.555 +/- 0.122 ml/g/min (NS), whereas the greater dose nonsignificantly increased it, from 0.744 +/- 0.115 to 0.819 +/- 0.119 ml/g/min (p
The acute dose-related effects of small to moderate doses of ethanol on right ventricular functioning were studied on 18 anesthetized, artificially ventilated dogs in 39 sessions. Diluted ethanol (from 25-37.5%) was infused during 40 minutes, yielding total doses of 1.0 g/kg (n = 15), and 1.5 g/kg (n = 12) with corresponding venous blood ethanol peak concentrations of 1.38 +/- 0.25 and 2.41 +/- 0.31 mg/ml, respectively. Heart rate increased up to 16% in groups receiving ethanol. In the control group receiving the equivalent volume of saline (n = 12) heart rate decreased 14%. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure increased from 24 +/- 3 to 27 +/- 3 mmHg and diastolic pressure from 11 +/- 2 to 14 +/- 4 mmHg (p less than 0.05) when the ethanol dose was 1.0 g/kg. The pulmonary arterial resistance increased from 620 +/- 135 to 805 +/- 185 dyn.s.cm-5 (p less than 0.01). The peak dP/dt decreased maximally by 20% with increasing ethanol doses. Stroke volume decreased maximally by 14% but due to the increase in heart rate, cardiac output even increased. The changes in end-diastolic volume and pressure were not significant. Hence, the ethanol increased heart rate and afterload of the right ventricle but depressed the myocardium.
In experiments on the closed-chest dogs it was shown that NOS inhibition resulted in the significant alterations of hemodynamic indices (coronary and peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac output and heart rate) under local myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in comparison with control experiments. At the first time it was shown that NOS inhibition activated the autophagic destruction of cardiomyocytes in the ischemic myocardium and could reduce an area of functionally active myocardium. L-arginine administration attenuated cardio- and hemodynamic disturbances, that substantially improved the course of ischemia/reperfusion, diminished the ultrastructural changes in myocardium and prevented development of autophagic programmed cell death.