To investigate whether distal esophageal acidification occurs during sleep in patients suspected of sleep-disordered breathing, and whether such acidification is related to respiratory abnormalities.
Fourteen middle-aged, snoring men all complaining of daytime sleepiness and suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea.
Sleep laboratory, Pulmonary Department, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Each patient underwent full nocturnal polysomnography testing, which included continuous monitoring of esophageal pressure (Pes) and pH. We identified all pH events, which were defined as a reduction in esophageal pH of >/= 1.0. During each pH event, the respiratory recordings where examined for the presence of apneas or hypopneas, and Pes was recorded. The data were analyzed to determine the possible relationships between pH events and respiratory events, and between changes in pH and changes in Pes. We found that there were more respiratory events than pH events. The mean (+/- SD) number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep was 33 +/- 22, whereas the mean number of pH events per hour of sleep was 7 +/- 6. Overall, 81% of all pH events were associated with respiratory events. Correlation analysis did not reveal any significant relationship between pH events and the magnitude of Pes or apnea-hypopnea index.
Episodes of esophageal acidification are common in patients with sleep apnea, and are usually associated with respiratory and pressure events. However, changes in pH were independent of the magnitude of the Pes.
Some previous studies have postulated an association between migraine and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). This study evaluated the association of EDS with migraine and headache frequency in a general population, after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
The study was a postal survey of a random age and gender-stratified sample of 40,000 persons aged 20 to 80 years old drawn by the National Population Register in Norway. The questionnaire included questions about migraine, headache, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and various comorbidities. EDS was defined as ESS?>?10. The association of EDS and migraine/headache were analysed by bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses.
A total of 21,177 persons responded to the ESS and were included in the analyses. The odds ratio (OR) for EDS was increased for migraineurs (1.42 (95% CI 1.31-1.54), p?179 days per year compared to those without headache in multivariable analysis.
In a general population, the odds for EDS increased significantly with the headache frequency, irrespective of migraine status. EDS was not associated with reported migraine in multivariable analysis.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sleep disturbance and headache type and frequency, in a random sample of participants in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey. The headache diagnoses were set by neurologists using the ICHD-2 criteria performing a semi structured face-to-face interview. Sleep problems were measured by the two validated instruments Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Among 297 participants, 77 subjects were headache-free, whereas 135 were diagnosed with tension-type headache (TTH), 51 with migraine, and 34 with other headache diagnoses. In the multivariate analyses, using logistic regression, excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as ESS >or= 10, was three times more likely among migraineurs compared with headache-free individuals (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.0-10.2). Severe sleep disturbances, defined as KSQ score in the upper quartile, was five times more likely among migraineurs (OR = 5.4, 95% CI 2.0-15.5), and three times more likely for subjects with TTH (OR = 3.3, 1.4-7.3) compared with headache-free individuals. Subjects with chronic headache were 17 times more likely to have severe sleep disturbances (OR = 17.4, 95% CI 5.1-59.8), and the association was somewhat stronger for chronic migraine (OR = 38.9, 95% CI 3.1-485.3) than for chronic TTH (OR = 18.3, 95% CI 3.6-93.0). In conclusion, there was a significant association between severe sleep disturbances and primary headache disorders, most pronounced for those with chronic headache. Even though one cannot address causality in the present study design, the results indicate an increased awareness of sleep problems among patients with headache.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, risk factors, and gender differences in symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea. A secondary objective was to study gender differences in relation to referral to a sleep clinic for sleep investigations. DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire study in a representative sample of the general population. A second cohort included patients referred for sleep apnea investigation between 1991 and 2000 in the same geographic region. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 5,424 subjects aged 20 to 69 years living in northern Sweden. Responses were obtained from 4,648 subjects (85.7%). RESULTS: Of the male respondents, 17.9% stated that snoring was a problem or said that they had relatives who were concerned about witnessed sleep apnea, and of the female respondents, 7.4%. The prevalence of snoring and witnessed apneas increased with age. In men, there was a peak prevalence rate at 55 to 59 years of age, while the corresponding figure in women the peak prevalence rate was at 60 to 64 years of age. Having snoring as a problem and relatives who were concerned about witnessed sleep apnea were independently associated with male gender, age, and current smoking. Snoring as a problem also was associated with higher education. Women who snored reported significantly more daytime sleepiness than did men who snored. The estimated number of subjects aged 20 to 69 years who had snoring as a problem or had relatives who were concerned about witnessed sleep apnea in the population was 21,160. During the previous decade, 3,955 subjects had been referred to sleep laboratories, so
To evaluate the sleep hygiene and prevalence of sleep deprivation among a large sample of automobile drivers.
From the 15th of June to the 4th of August 1996, with the help of the French highway patrol, we randomly stopped automobile drivers at the toll booths of Bordeaux and Biarritz. All subjects completed a validated questionnaire on sleep/wake habits during the year. After answering the questionnaire, subjects completed a graphic travel and sleep log of the three days preceding the interview.
We randomly stopped 2196 automobile drivers. Ninety-one percent of the sample (mean age 43 +/- 13 years) agreed to participate in the survey.
Fifty percent of the drivers decreased their total sleep time in the 24 hours before the interview compared with their regular self-reported sleep time. 12.5% presented a sleep debt > 180 minutes, and 2.7% presented a sleep debt > 300 minutes. Being young, commuting to work, driving long distances, starting the trip at night, being an "evening" person, being a long sleeper during the week, and sleeping in on the week-end were risk factors significantly associated with sleep debt.
The results of the study highlight variables (long-distance driving, youth, sleep restriction) that are frequently associated with sleep-related accidents.
Associations between influenza infection and sleep disorders are poorly studied. We investigated if pandemic influenza infection or vaccination with Pandemrix in 2009/2010 was associated with narcolepsy or hypersomnia in children and young adults.
We followed the Norwegian population under age 30 from January 2008 through December 2012 by linking national health registry data. Narcolepsy diagnoses were validated using hospital records. Risks of narcolepsy or hypersomnia were estimated as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in Cox regression models with influenza infection and vaccination as time-dependent exposures.
Among the 1,638,526 persons under age 30 in Norway in 2009, 3.6% received a physician diagnosis of influenza during the pandemic, while 41.9% were vaccinated against pandemic influenza. Between October 1st 2009 and December 31st 2012, 72 persons had onset of narcolepsy and 305 were diagnosed with hypersomnia. The risk of a sleep disorder was associated with infection during the first six months, adjusted HR 3.31 with 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-10.79 for narcolepsy and adjusted HR 3.13 (95% CI, 1.12-8.76) for hypersomnia. The risk of narcolepsy was strongly associated with vaccination during the first six months adjusted HR 17.21 (95% CI, 6.28-47.14), while the adjusted HR for hypersomnia was 1.54 (95% CI, 0.81-2.93).
The study confirms an increased HR of narcolepsy following pandemic vaccination. Slightly increased HRs of narcolepsy and hypersomnia are also seen after influenza infection. However, the role of infection should be viewed with caution due to underreporting of influenza.
To analyze predictors of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and to analyze how changes within risk factors over time predict incident EDS in women.
Population-based prospective study.
General population of the City of Uppsala, Sweden.
From a random, general population sample of 7,051 women from the Sleep and HEalth in women ("SHE") cohort, 4,322 women without EDS at baseline were followed up after 10 y.
At baseline and follow-up, women answered a questionnaire on sleeping habits, somatic disease, obesity, insomnia, anxiety and depression, lifestyle, and social factors. The risk of incident EDS was analyzed from changes over time in risk factors using logistic regression modeling. Of the women, EDS developed in 7.9%. Incident: insomnia (adjusted odds ratio = 5.01; 95% confidence interval 3.63-6.92), anxiety and/or depression (3.34; 2.22-5.02), somatic disease (1.73; 1.17-2.55), obesity (1.91; 1.14-2.57), snoring (1.91; 1.17-3.10) and smoking (4.31; 1.95-9.54) were all independent risk factors for the development of EDS. In addition, persistent: insomnia (4.44; 2.97-6.65) and anxiety and/or depression (4.91; 3.17-7.62) increased the risk of developing EDS. Apart from incident: snoring and obesity, similar results were obtained when only including women without somatic disease in the analyses.
Insomnia, anxiety and/or depression, and smoking were the most important factors for predicting incident excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and, in addition, somatic disease, obesity, and snoring predicted EDS. It is important not only to treat these conditions but also to inform women of the importance of a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent and reduce EDS in women.
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This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults presenting symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population. Randomly selected participants (N = 1,502; 50.7% men, 49.3% women), ages 40 to 70 yr. (M = 53.6, SD = 8.5) were interviewed over the telephone. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) were assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. OSA symptoms were identified by self- or spouse reports on snoring, breathing cessations during sleep, and being tired or sleepy. The prevalence of OSA was 6.2%. Among these participants with OSA, 57.6% reported insomnia and 30.1% reported excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, OSA symptoms were associated with self-reported obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and depression, but only in participants with comorbid insomnia or excessive sleepiness.
Increased daytime sleepiness is an important symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA is frequently underdiagnosed, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) can be a useful tool in alerting physicians to a potential problem involving OSA.
To measure the prevalence and determinants of daytime sleepiness measured using the ESS in a rural community population.
A community survey was conducted to examine the risk factors associated with ESS in a rural population in 154 households comprising 283 adults. Questionnaire information was obtained regarding physical factors, social factors, general medical history, family medical history, ESS score, and self-reported height and weight. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis based on the generalized estimating equations approach to account for clustering within households was used to predict the relationship between a binary ESS score outcome (normal or abnormal) and a set of explanatory variables.
The population included 140 men (49.5%) and 143 women (50.5%) with an age range of 18 to 97 years (mean [± SD] 52.0±14.9 years). The data showed that 79.2% of the study participants had an ESS score in the normal range (0 to 10) and 20.8% had an ESS score >10, which is considered to be abnormal or high sleepiness. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that obesity was significantly associated with an abnormal or high sleepiness score on the ESS (OR 3.40 [95% CI 1.31 to 8.80).
High levels of sleepiness in this population were common. Obesity was an important risk factor for high ESS score.
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Background and aims Chronic and recurrent pain is prevalent in adolescents and generally girls report more pain symptoms than boys. Also, pain symptoms and sleep problems often co-occur. Pain symptoms have negative effects on school achievement, emotional well-being, sleep, and overall health and well-being. For effective intervention and prevention there is a need for defining factors associated with pain symptoms and daytime sleepiness. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the prevalence and association between neck-shoulder pain, back pain, psychological symptoms and daytime sleepiness in 10-, 12- and 15-year-old children. This study is the first that followed up the same cohort of children from the age of 10 to 15. Methods A cohort study design with three measurement points was used. Participants (n=568) were recruited from an elementary school cohort in a city of 1,75,000 inhabitants in South-Western Finland. Symptoms and daytime sleepiness were measured with self-administered questionnaires. Regression models were used to analyze the associations. Results Frequent neck-shoulder pain and back pain, and psychological symptoms, as well as daytime sleepiness, are already common at the age of 10 and increase strongly between the ages 12 and 15. Overall a greater proportion of girls suffered from pain symptoms and daytime sleepiness compared to boys. Daytime sleepiness in all ages associated positively with the frequency of neck-shoulder pain and back pain. The more that daytime sleepiness existed, the more neck-shoulder pain and back pain occurred. Daytime sleepiness at the age of 10 predicted neck-shoulder pain at the age of 15, and back pain at the age of 10 indicated that there would also be back pain at the age of 15. In addition, positive associations between psychological symptoms and neck-shoulder pain, as well as back pain, were observed. Subjects with psychological problems suffered neck-shoulder pain and back pain more frequently. Conclusions This study is the first study that has followed up the same cohort of children from the age of 10 to 15. The studied symptoms were all already frequent at the age of 10. An increase mostly happened between the ages of 12 and 15. Moreover, the self-reported daytime sleepiness at the age of 10 predicted neck-shoulder pain at the age of 15. More attention should be paid to the daytime sleepiness of children at an early stage as it has a predictive value for other symptoms later in life. Implications School nurses, teachers and parents are in a key position to prevent adolescents' sleep habits and healthy living habits. Furthermore, the finding that daytime sleepiness predicts neck-shoulder pain later in adolescence suggests that persistent sleep problems in childhood need early identification and treatment. Health care professionals also need take account of other risk factors, such as psychological symptoms and pain symptoms. The early identification and treatment of sleep problems in children might prevent the symptoms' development later in life. There is a need for an individuals' interventions to treat adolescents' sleep problems.