The aim of the present 5-year follow-up was to clarify the nature of occlusal support status and radiographic changes in condyles of the elderly, and the association between these two variables.
The present study is part of a comprehensive medical survey of a random sample born in 1904, 1909, and 1914. A total of 364 subjects living in Helsinki participated in the dental part of the examination during 1990 to 1991, and after 5 years a total of 103 were reexamined. Comprehensive data on occlusal support status were available for 94 subjects, and radiographic data were available for 88 subjects. Occlusal support status was assessed on the basis of the Eichner index, radiographic changes were assessed from panoramic radiographs, and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were assessed using Helkimo's anamnestic index.
The most frequent radiographic finding in the mandibular joint was flattening of the articular surface of the condyle associated with osteoarthrosis, found at baseline in 17% and during follow-up in 13% of the subjects. During the 5-year follow-up, Eichner index for natural dentition remained unaltered in 94% of the subjects and in 85% of the subjects when removable dentures were included. There were no radiographic changes in 92% of the cases. No differences based on age or gender were found. A logistic regression model revealed associations between the selected baseline factors. The odds ratio for baseline Helkimo's anamnestic index was 4.1, 5.7 for Eichner index with the support of removable dentures, and 356 for radiographic findings.
Radiographic changes in condyles of elderly people were small during the 5-year follow-up, but baseline radiographic findings, Helkimo's anamnestic index, and Eichner index with removable dentures were risk factors for radiographic findings at the end of the follow-up.
As much as one-third of all total hip arthroplasties in patients younger than 60 years may be a consequence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Screening and early treatment of neonatal instability of the hip (NIH) reduces the incidence of DDH. We examined the radiographic outcome at 1 year in children undergoing early treatment for NIH.
All children born in Malm? undergo neonatal screening for NIH, and any child with suspicion of instability is referred to our clinic. We reviewed the 1-year radiographs for infants who were referred from April 2002 through December 2007. Measurements of the acetabular index at 1 year were compared between neonatally dislocated, unstable, and stable hips.
The incidence of NIH was 7 per 1,000 live births. The referral rate was 15 per 1,000. 82% of those treated were girls. The mean acetabular index was higher in dislocated hips (25.3, 95% CI: 24.6-26.0) than in neonatally stable hips (22.7, 95% CI: 22.3-23.2). Girls had a higher mean acetabular index than boys and left hips had a higher mean acetabular index than right hips, which is in accordance with previous findings.
Even in children who are diagnosed and treated perinatally, radiographic differences in acetabular shape remain at 1 year. To determine whether this is of clinical importance, longer follow-up will be required.
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In review of the literature there is no standard treatment of acute- as well as recurrent dislocation of the patella. Most investigations are retrospective or not randomised. Approximately 1500 patients/year with the diagnosis luxatio patellae are seen in Danish hospitals.
Using a questionnaire we wished to find out how these patients were treated in Danish orthopaedic departments.
We found that there was no consensus on the treatment of patellar dislocation.
We concluded that there is a need for prospective randomised studies involving a large number of patients, with a long follow up time.
In a prospective two-year study on urban (city of Helsinki) Finnish children, 72 acute patellar dislocations were observed. The calculated annual incidence rate was 43/100,000 in children under 16 years. A total of 28 knees (39%) had associated osteochondral fractures. These fractures comprised 15 capsular avulsions of the medial patellar margin and 15 loose intra-articular fragments detached from the patella and/or lateral femoral condyle. The intra-articular fragments were found only after spontaneous relocation of the patella. The femoral fracture constantly involved the edge of the articular surface in the middle third of the condylar arc.
The present investigation analyses all the acute soccer injuries recorded in Finland during one year (1980). The mean follow-up time was 18 months. The calculated yearly injury incidence was 5.8%. No significant difference in the injury incidences between the two sexes could be detected. A major part, 64% of the injuries were located in the lower extremities. Fractures and dislocations accounted for 11% of all injuries. One quarter of the injuries were classified as mild, causing a playing disability shorter than a week. Most injuries occurred through physical contact with another player (p less than 0.001). The calculated median time of absence from practice after injury was 4 weeks.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the events leading to acute traumatic extension deficit of the knee and the arthroscopic findings in these patients. A total of 78 consecutive patients treated in the Turku university hospital during the years 1994-1996 were included. The mean annual incidence of acute traumatic extension deficits of the knee in our study was 1.1 per 10 000 inhabitants. The single most common (33%) event causing the extension deficit was non-sports related twisting of the knee. Various sports related activities accounted for 42% of the extension deficits, and soccer was the most common sport in this group. In conclusion, acute traumatic extension deficit of the knee is usually a sign of serious intra-articular damage, and the most likely finding (in 82% of the patients in our study) is either a meniscal rupture, an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, a patellar dislocation, or a combination of these. The lesions in these knees require prompt evaluation by an orthopaedic surgeon mainly because of the high number of bucket-handle and menisco-capsular insertion ruptures of the menisci, which are possibly suitable for repair.
To find out how the site and type of condylar fracture are affected by its aetiology and the age and sex of the patient.
Tertiary referral centre, Finland.
Radiographs of 101 children (aged 15 years or less) with 119 condylar fractures.
Site of fracture and degree of displacement.
A total of 26 of the 119 fractures were intracapsular (22%) and 93 (78%) extracapsular. Only among patients less than 6 years of age was there a preponderance of intracapsular fractures (7/12 fractures in 10 patients, 58%). In the older children 78% (83/107) were in the condylar neck. There were few subcondylar fractures (5/119, 4%). Only 6 fractures were displaced (5%). Dislocation of the condyle from the glenoid fossa was common in all age groups.
The site of condylar fracture is age related, but not associated with sex or aetiology.