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The 20th century Danish facial cleft population--epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33384
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
K. Christensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, Epidemiology, Odense University, Denmark. k-christensen@win-chs.ou.dk
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cleft Lip - epidemiology - genetics
Cleft Palate - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Epidemiology, Molecular
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Seasons
Sex Factors
Twin Studies
Variation (Genetics)
Abstract
Since Dr. Fogh-Andersen's legendary 1942 thesis, the Danish facial cleft population has been one of the most extensively studied in terms of epidemiology and genetic-epidemiology. The etiology of cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is still largely an enigma, and different results concerning environmental and genetic risk factors are obtained in different countries and regions. This may be due to etiological heterogeneity between settings. Therefore, an in-depth studied area with an ethnically homogeneous population, such as Denmark, has provided one of the best opportunities for progress in CLP etiological research. The present review summarizes epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies conducted in the 20th century Danish facial cleft population. Furthermore, analyses of sex differences, time trends and seasonality for more than 7000 CLP cases born in Denmark in the period 1936 to 1987 are presented. The review also points toward the excellent opportunities for continued etiological CLP research in Denmark in the 21st century using already established resources and an on-going prospective cohort study of 100,000 pregnant women.
PubMed ID
10213053 View in PubMed
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1991 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Smoking and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration: an MRI study of identical twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65039
Source
Spine. 1991 Sep;16(9):1015-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1991
Author
M C Battié
T. Videman
K. Gill
G B Moneta
R. Nyman
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopaedics, University of Washington, Seattle.
Source
Spine. 1991 Sep;16(9):1015-21
Date
Sep-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Awards and Prizes
Comparative Study
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Intervertebral Disk Displacement - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether disc degeneration, as assessed through magnetic resonance imaging, is greater in smokers than in nonsmokers. To control for the maximum number of potentially confounding variables, pairs of identical twins highly discordant for cigarette smoking were selected as study subjects. Data analyses revealed 18% greater mean disc degeneration scores in the lumbar spines of smokers as compared with nonsmokers. The effect was present across the entire lumbar spine, implicating a mechanism acting systemically. This investigation demonstrates the efficiency of using carefully selected controls in studying conditions of multifactorial etiology, such as disc degeneration.
PubMed ID
1948392 View in PubMed
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Accounting for the relationship between low education and dementia: a twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84775
Source
Physiol Behav. 2007 Sep 10;92(1-2):232-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-10-2007
Author
Gatz Margaret
Mortimer James A
Fratiglioni Laura
Johansson Boo
Berg Stig
Andel Ross
Crowe Michael
Fiske Amy
Reynolds Chandra A
Pedersen Nancy L
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Physiol Behav. 2007 Sep 10;92(1-2):232-7
Date
Sep-10-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Apolipoprotein E4 - genetics - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Dementia - genetics - metabolism
Diseases in Twins
Educational Status
Environment
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Statistical
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
We evaluated whether the association between low education and greater risk of dementia is explained by genetic influences, using three different types of analyses. The HARMONY study (Swedish for "health" (Hälsa), "genes" (ARv), "environment" (Miljö), "and" (Och), and "new" (NY)) includes members of the Swedish Twin Registry who were aged 65 and older and alive in 1998, and who were screened and clinically assessed for dementia. There were 394 cases with dementia and 7786 unrelated controls. Analyses included co-twin control, tests for association between education and a measured genotype, and bivariate twin modeling. Low education was a significant risk factor for dementia both in case-control analyses (odds ratio=1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.28) and co-twin control analyses with monozygotic twin pairs (odds ratio=3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 7.93). Apolipoprotein E genotype was not associated with education and did not account for the relationship between education and dementia. Bivariate twin modeling showed that the association between education and dementia was not mediated by genetic influences in common between education and dementia. The association was mediated by shared environmental influences that were related to both dementia and to education. Low education is confirmed as a risk factor for dementia. Findings from three different analytic approaches showed that genetic influences did not explain this association.
PubMed ID
17597169 View in PubMed
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Accuracy and sensitivity of Parkinsonian disorder diagnoses in two Swedish national health registers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125521
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2012;38(3):186-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Adina L Feldman
Anna L V Johansson
Margaret Gatz
Måns Flensburg
Giselle M Petzinger
Håkan Widner
Mark F Lew
Nancy L Pedersen
Karin Wirdefeldt
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2012;38(3):186-93
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cause of Death
Diagnostic Errors - statistics & numerical data
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Parkinsonian Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Predictive value of tests
Registries
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Swedish population-based national health registers are widely used data sources in epidemiological research. Register-based diagnoses of Parkinson's disease have not been validated against clinical information.
Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorder diagnoses were ascertained in two registers, i.e. the National Patient Register (NPR) and the Cause of Death Register (CDR). Diagnoses were validated in terms of accuracy (positive predictive value) and sensitivity against data from a population-based study of PD in 1998-2004 that screened more than 35,000 persons and identified 194 cases of parkinsonian disorders including 132 PD cases (the gold standard for the purposes of this study).
Accuracy for any parkinsonian disorder diagnoses was 88.0% in the NPR and 94.4% in the CDR. Accuracy of PD diagnoses was 70.8% in the NPR and 66.7% in the CDR. Misclassification between differential parkinsonian diagnoses was common. The accuracy of PD diagnoses in the NPR improved to 83.0% by restricting the definition to primary diagnoses only. The sensitivity of PD diagnoses in the NPR and CDR combined was 83.1%, with a mean time to detection of 6.9 years.
Population-based national health registers are valid data sources in epidemiological studies of PD or parkinsonian disorder etiology but are less suitable in studies of incidence or prevalence.
Notes
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Cites: Arch Neurol. 1999 Jan;56(1):98-1029923767
PubMed ID
22472568 View in PubMed
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The accuracy of self-reported history of seizures in Danish, Norwegian and U.S. twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90531
Source
Epilepsy Res. 2009 Mar;84(1):1-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Corey Linda A
Kjeldsen Marianne J
Solaas Marit H
Nakken Karl Otto
Friis Mogens L
Pellock John M
Author Affiliation
Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980033, Richmond, VA 23298-0033, USA. corey@vcu.edu
Source
Epilepsy Res. 2009 Mar;84(1):1-5
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Community Health Planning
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Seizures - classification - epidemiology - genetics
United States - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Questionnaire surveys provide an efficient means of identifying potential seizure cases in large population-based cohorts. Concerns exist, however, with regard to the reliability of self-reported information both with respect to the validity of the results obtained and with regard to the usefulness of this approach in identifying true cases. Information on history of seizures obtained by questionnaire from members of 47,626 twin pairs included in the Mid-Atlantic (MATR), Danish (DTR) and Norwegian (NTR) Twin Registries was verified using medical records and detailed clinical and family interviews. The accuracy of these reports was assessed. Self-reported epilepsy was verified in 81.9% of twins overall (86.1% (DTR), 75.6% (NTR) and 80.7% (MATR)). However, when both pair members reported a history of epilepsy in the affected pair member, epilepsy was verified in >90% of cases. Among MATR twins with a verified history of epilepsy, 21.5% reported other seizures but not epilepsy and 18.5% of verified Norwegian epilepsy cases reported no history of epilepsy themselves and were identified only through their co-twin. The results of this study indicate that the accuracy of self-reported epilepsy and febrile seizures among those who provided information on health history was high across all populations. However, the relatively large percentage of twins with a verified diagnosis who did not acknowledge epilepsy suggests that the frequency of epilepsy may be under-estimated in self-reported samples.
PubMed ID
19128944 View in PubMed
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ADHD and Disruptive Behavior scores - associations with MAO-A and 5-HTT genes and with platelet MAO-B activity in adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93275
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:28
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Malmberg Kerstin
Wargelius Hanna-Linn
Lichtenstein Paul
Oreland Lars
Larsson Jan-Olov
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Woman and Child Health, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit Q3:04, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. kerstin.malmberg@ki.se
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:28
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - classification - enzymology - psychology
Blood Platelets - enzymology
Diseases in Twins - enzymology - genetics
Female
Humans
Male
Minisatellite Repeats
Monoamine Oxidase - blood - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins - genetics
Sex Characteristics
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological and genetic studies suggest the importance of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems in the pathogenesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD). We have, in a population-based sample, studied associations between dimensions of the ADHD/DBD phenotype and Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B) activity in platelets and polymorphisms in two serotonergic genes: the Monoamine Oxidase A Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MAO-A VNTR) and the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTT LPR). METHODS: A population-based sample of twins, with an average age of 16 years, was assessed for ADHD/DBD with a clinical interview; Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Blood was drawn from 247 subjects and analyzed for platelet MAO-B activity and polymorphisms in the MAO-A and 5-HTT genes. RESULTS: We found an association in girls between low platelet MAO-B activity and symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). In girls, there was also an association between the heterozygote long/short 5-HTT LPR genotype and symptoms of conduct disorder. Furthermore the heterozygote 5-HTT LPR genotype in boys was found to be associated with symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD). In boys, hemizygosity for the short MAO-A VNTR allele was associated with disruptive behavior. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the serotonin system, in addition to the dopamine system, should be further investigated when studying genetic influences on the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders.
PubMed ID
18430257 View in PubMed
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ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, temperament, and character: phenotypical associations and etiology in a Swedish childhood twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112856
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Nóra Kerekes
Sven Brändström
Sebastian Lundström
Maria Råstam
Thomas Nilsson
Henrik Anckarsäter
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&D Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: nora.kerekes@neuro.gu.se.
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Character
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Personality - physiology
Phenotype
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperament - physiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To explore the links between neurodevelopmental disorders - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - and personality in a population-based, genetically sensitive study of children.
A population-based sample of 1886 twins aged 9 and 12, enriched for childhood mental health problems, was recruited from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parents were interviewed over the telephone using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory, and in a second step they rated their children according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI).
ADHD was strongly correlated with novelty seeking, while ASD was correlated positively with harm avoidance and negatively with reward dependence. The strongest associations between personality traits and neurodevelopmental disorders were negative correlations between the character dimensions of self-directedness and cooperativeness and ADHD and ASD alike. Cross-twin cross-trait correlations between ADHD, ASD, and personality dimensions in monozygotic twins were more than double those in dizygotic twins, indicating a strong genetic effect behind the phenotypic covariation between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are linked specifically to particular temperament profiles and generally to hampered development of the self-governing strategies referred to as "character." Poor self-agency and cooperation may be core functional outcomes in the separation of children with handicapping conditions from those with traits only reminiscent of neurodevelopmental disorders. The associations between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality are at least partly due to genetic effects influencing both conditions. As a consequence, personality must be broadly considered in neuropsychiatry, just as neuropsychiatric disorders and their genetic, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive susceptibilities have to be in personality research and clinical treatment.
PubMed ID
23790516 View in PubMed
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Adolescent alcohol abuse and adverse adult outcomes: evaluating confounds with drinking-discordant twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262747
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Richard J Rose
Torsten Winter
Richard J Viken
Jaakko Kaprio
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - genetics - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Income
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Sexual Behavior - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Adolescent alcohol abuse is associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood, but differences in familial status and structure and household and community environments correlate with both adolescent drinking and adverse adult outcomes and may explain their association. We studied drinking-discordant twin pairs to evaluate such confounds to ask: Will between-family associations replicate in within-family comparisons?
With longitudinal data from >3,000 Finnish twins, we associated drinking problems at age 18½ with 13 outcomes assessed at age 25; included were sustained substance abuse, poor health, physical symptoms, early coital debut, multiple sexual partners, life dissatisfaction, truncated education, and financial problems. We assessed associations among twins as individuals with linear regression adjusted for correlated observations; within-family analyses of discordant twin pairs followed, comparing paired means for adult outcomes among co-twins discordant for adolescent problem drinking. Defining discordance by extreme scores on self-reported problem drinking at age 18½ permitted parallel analyses of twins as individuals and discordant twin pairs. Alternate definitions of pair-wise discordance and difference score correlations across the entire twin sample yielded supplementary analyses.
All individual associations were highly significant for all definitions of discordance we employed. Depending on definitions of discordance, 11 to 13 comparisons of all drinking-discordant twin pairs and 3 to 6 comparisons of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs replicated between-family associations. For most outcomes, effect size attenuated from individual-level analysis to that within discordant MZ twin pairs providing evidence of partial confounding in associations reported in earlier research. The exception was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); at age 25, GHQ-12 had equivalent associations with age 18½ Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index across all comparisons.
Our analyses control for shared family background, and, partly or fully, for shared genes, to yield within-family replications and more compelling evidence than previously available that adolescent alcohol abuse disrupts transitions into early adulthood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25040879 View in PubMed
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Age of onset in concordant twins and other relative pairs with multiple sclerosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150146
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Aug 1;170(3):289-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2009
Author
A Dessa Sadovnick
Irene M Yee
Colleen Guimond
Jacques Reis
David A Dyment
George C Ebers
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Genetics, Vancouver Coastal Health Authority-University of British Columbia Hospital, G-920 Detwiller Pavilion, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. sadovnik@infinet.net
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Aug 1;170(3):289-96
Date
Aug-1-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
British Columbia - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Family
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Parents
Pedigree
Risk factors
Siblings
Time Factors
Twins - genetics
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
The ages of onset in multiple sclerosis cases span more than 7 decades. Data are presented for affected relative pairs from a Canadian population base of 30,000 multiple sclerosis index cases (1993-2008). The effects of genetic sharing, parent of origin, intergenerational versus collinear differences, and gender on the ages of onset were evaluated in the following concordant pairs: monozygotic twins (n = 29), dizygotic twins (n = 10), siblings (n = 614), first cousins (n = 405), half siblings (n = 29), parent/child (n = 285), and aunt/uncle/niece/nephew (avunculars) (n = 289). Fisher's z test assessed intraclass correlation (r) for ages of onset. Correlations for monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, and first cousins were 0.60, 0.54, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. Dizygotic twins resembled monozygotic twins more than siblings. The age-of-onset correlation for maternal half siblings (r = 0.37) was higher than that for paternal half siblings (r = 0.26), consistent with other observations suggesting an intrauterine environmental effect on multiple sclerosis risk. Intergenerational comparisons are complicated by substantial increases of multiple sclerosis incidence over time. Genetic loading (familial vs. sporadic cases) did not generally influence the age of onset, but correlation of age of onset in multiple sclerosis relative pairs was proportional to genetic sharing. A maternal parent-of-origin effect on the age of onset in collinear generations was suggested.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19546151 View in PubMed
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752 records – page 1 of 76.