Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem for Aboriginal people in Canada, with high rates of clustering of active TB cases. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination has been used as a preventive measure against TB in this high-risk population.
The study was designed to determine if BCG vaccination in Aboriginal people influenced recent TB transmission through an analysis of the clustering of TB cases.
A retrospective analysis of all culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in Aboriginal people in western Canada (1995 to 1997) was performed. Isolates were analyzed using standard methodology for restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping.
Of 256 culture-positive Aboriginal TB cases, BCG status was confirmed in 216 (84%) cases; 34% had been vaccinated with BCG, 57% were male and 56% were living on-reserve. Patients who had been vaccinated with BCG were younger than unvaccinated individuals (mean age 32.4+/-1.65 years versus 45.0+/-1.8 years, P
Comment In: Can Respir J. 2005 Apr;12(3):120-115929223
We studied the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the ongoing Omega Cohort Study of men who have sex with men (MSM).
From January to September 2001, consenting men (n = 1085) attending a follow-up visit to the ongoing Omega Cohort Study were tested for HCV. If the test results were positive for HCV, we compared them with test results from previous serum samples collected from the time of entry into the original cohort study to determine the time of infection.
HCV prevalence at entry was 2.9% and was strongly associated with injection drug use (32.9% vs 0.3%, P
Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have significant neurocognitive impairment.
To assess whether chronic HCV infection impacts on patient marital status, living arrangement and employment.
The charts of patients with chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B were reviewed.
The mean (+/- SD) age of the 129 patients with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) was 46+/-15 years and that of the 428 patients with HCV was 48+/-15 years. Sixty-seven per cent of HBV patients were men, compared with 68% of HCV patients. Eighty per cent of HCV patients were Caucasian, compared with 44% of patients with HBV. The main modes of transmission were intravenous drug use (37%) and transfusion of blood products (37%) for HCV, compared with country of origin (76%) for HBV. There were no differences in marital status rates between HBV- and HCV-infected patients (HBV - married (73%), single (21%) and divorced (6%); and HCV - married (66%), single (23%) and divorced (10%); P=0.20). HCV patients lived alone more often than HBV patients (HBV - 13%, HCV - 22%; P=0.03). There was no difference in overall employment rate between HCV and HBV patients (81% versus 87%; P=0.15). Though there may not have been overall differences between HCV and HBV marital status and employment status, there were differences in the HCV subgroups. These subgroup differences were discovered in the multivariate analysis; mode of transmission was identified as the only predictor of the patients' marital status and employment status.
The most important determinant of interpersonal relationships was the mode of transmission of the viral hepatitis rather than the type of viral infection: past intravenous drug users had lower level relationships.
Cites: Aust N Z J Public Health. 2001 Aug;25(4):355-6111529619
The effect of age on the clinical presentation of pertussis was assessed in 664 adolescent and adult cases. Complications were more frequent in adults than in adolescents (28% vs. 16%). Pneumonia occurred in 2% of patients /=50 years old. Duration of cough, risk of sinusitis, and number of nights with disturbed sleep increased with smoking and asthma. The secondary attack rate in other household members >/=12 years was 11%. Pertussis in secondary case patients was less severe than in index case patients but presented with classic symptoms. The main source of infection in adolescents was schoolmates or friends; in adults it was workplace or their children. Teachers and health care workers had a greater risk of pertussis than did the general population. The burden of disease appears to increase with age, with smoking, and with asthma.
Although anxiety exists concerning the perceived risk of transmission of bloodborne viruses after community-acquired needlestick injuries, seroconversion seems to be rare. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of pediatric community-acquired needlestick injuries and to estimate the risk of seroconversion for HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in these events.
The study population included all of the children presenting with community-acquired needlestick injuries to the Montreal Children's Hospital between 1988 and 2006 and to H?pital Sainte-Justine between 1995 and 2006. Data were collected prospectively at H?pital Sainte-Justine from 2001 to 2006. All of the other data were reviewed retrospectively by using a standardized case report form.
A total of 274 patients were identified over a period of 19 years. Mean age was 7.9 +/- 3.4 years. A total of 176 (64.2%) were boys. Most injuries occurred in streets (29.2%) or parks (24.1%), and 64.6% of children purposely picked up the needle. Only 36 patients (13.1%) noted blood on the device. Among the 230 patients not known to be immune for hepatitis B virus, 189 (82.2%) received hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and 213 (92.6%) received hepatitis B virus vaccine. Prophylactic antiretroviral therapy was offered beginning in 1997. Of the 210 patients who presented thereafter, 82 (39.0%) received chemoprophylaxis, of whom 69 (84.1%) completed a 4-week course of therapy. The use of a protease inhibitor was not associated with a significantly higher risk of adverse effects or early discontinuation of therapy. At 6 months, 189 were tested for HIV, 167 for hepatitis B virus, and 159 for hepatitis C virus. There were no seroconversions.
We observed no seroconversions in 274 pediatric community-acquired needlestick injuries, thereby confirming that the risk of transmission of bloodborne viruses in these events is very low.
Research on risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has revealed that they seldom correspond with actual risk of infection. Core groups of people with high-risk behavior who form networks of people linked by sexual contact are essential for STI transmission, but have been overlooked in epidemiological studies. Social network analysis, a subdiscipline of sociology, provides both the methods and analytical techniques to describe and illustrate the effects of sexual networks on STI transmission. Sexual networks of people from Colorado Springs, Colorado, and from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, infected with chlamydia during a 6-month period were compared. In Winnipeg, 442 networks were identified, comprising 571 cases and 663 contacts, ranging in size from 2 to 20 individuals; Colorado Springs data yielded 401 networks, comprising 468 cases and 700 contacts, ranging in size from 2 to 12 individuals. Taking differing partner notification methods and the slightly smaller population size in Colorado Springs into account, the networks from both places were similar in both size and structure. These smaller, sparsely linked networks, peripheral to the core, may form the mechanism by which chlamydia can remain endemic, in contrast with larger, more densely connected networks, closer to the core, which are associated with steep rises in incidence.
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The two feet-one hand syndrome is not uncommon; however, there have only been a few reports on this condition. This study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the two feet-one hand syndrome.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of all the patients seen in our practices over the past 15 years with the diagnosis of two feet-one hand syndrome.
A total of 80 patients with mycologically confirmed disease were identified (men, 72 (90%); women, 8 (10%); 77 (96%) Caucasian; 3 (4%) African-American; age (mean +/- standard error (SE)), 55.9 +/- 2.1 years). The mean age of the patients when the physician was first seen for the condition was 51.3 +/- 2.0 years. The mean ages when the symptoms first developed on the feet and hand were 37.1 +/- 2.4 years and 45.7 +/- 2.2 years, respectively. Tinea pedis was found to occur at an earlier age than tinea manuum (t(65) = 6.92, P