Skip header and navigation

Refine By

188 records – page 1 of 19.

Accuracy of healthcare worker recall and medical record review for identifying infectious exposures to hospitalized patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168575
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Jul;27(7):722-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
M. Aquino
J M Raboud
A. McGeer
K. Green
R. Chow
P. Dimoulas
M. Loeb
D. Scales
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Jul;27(7):722-8
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disease Transmission, Infectious
Environmental Exposure
Hospitalization
Humans
Inpatients
Medical Audit
Mental Recall
Ontario
Personnel, Hospital
Abstract
To determine the validity of using healthcare worker (HCW) recall of patient interactions and medical record review for contact tracing in a critical care setting.
Trained observers recorded the interactions of nurses, respiratory therapists, and service assistants with study patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit. These observers' records were used as the reference standard to test the criterion validity of using HCW recall data or medical record review data to identify exposure characteristics. We assessed the effects of previous quarantine of the HCW (because of possible exposure) and the availability of patients' medical records for use as memory aids on the accuracy of HCW recall.
A 10-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Ontario.
Thirty-six HCWs observed caring for 16 patients, for a total of 55 healthcare worker shifts.
Recall accuracy was better among HCWs who were provided with patient medical records as memory aids (P
PubMed ID
16807848 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A "contagionist" physician in Qu├ębec: The writings of doctor Marsden (1868-1869)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216036
Source
Health Can Soc. 1995;3(1-2):43-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995

[Acute diseases and trauma of thorax and abdomen in patients with hemocontact viral infections].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138580
Source
Khirurgiia (Mosk). 2010;(9):24-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
M A Godkov
Sh N Danielian
M M Abakumov
Source
Khirurgiia (Mosk). 2010;(9):24-9
Date
2010
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Injuries - epidemiology - surgery
Communicable disease control
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - immunology - transmission
Comorbidity
Cumulative Trauma Disorders - epidemiology - surgery
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Disease Transmission, Infectious - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Emergencies
HIV Seropositivity - epidemiology - immunology - transmission
Humans
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Surgery Department, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Thoracic Injuries - epidemiology - surgery
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - immunology - transmission
Abstract
Screening of hemocontact viral infections (HVI) (HIV, hepatitis B and C) was conducted among patients of the emergency thoraco-abdominal surgery unit. During the 8 years of the study the HVI detection had increased on 57.4%. Gender analysis showed greater HVI prevalence among men. Medico-social criteria of HVI risk-groups among patients of the emergency thoraco-abdominal surgery unit were stated.
PubMed ID
21164418 View in PubMed
Less detail

African pygmy hedgehog--associated Salmonella tilene in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206677
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Sep 1;23(17):129-31; discussion 131-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-1997

An agent-based approach for modeling dynamics of contagious disease spread.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149292
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:50
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Liliana Perez
Suzana Dragicevic
Author Affiliation
Spatial Analysis and Modeling Laboratory, Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada. lperezca@sfu.ca
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:50
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Computer simulation
Disease Transmission, Infectious - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiologic Methods
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Measles - epidemiology - transmission
Models, Theoretical
Risk factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The propagation of communicable diseases through a population is an inherent spatial and temporal process of great importance for modern society. For this reason a spatially explicit epidemiologic model of infectious disease is proposed for a greater understanding of the disease's spatial diffusion through a network of human contacts.
The objective of this study is to develop an agent-based modelling approach the integrates geographic information systems (GIS) to simulate the spread of a communicable disease in an urban environment, as a result of individuals' interactions in a geospatial context.
The methodology for simulating spatiotemporal dynamics of communicable disease propagation is presented and the model is implemented using measles outbreak in an urban environment as a case study. Individuals in a closed population are explicitly represented by agents associated to places where they interact with other agents. They are endowed with mobility, through a transportation network allowing them to move between places within the urban environment, in order to represent the spatial heterogeneity and the complexity involved in infectious diseases diffusion. The model is implemented on georeferenced land use dataset from Metro Vancouver and makes use of census data sets from Statistics Canada for the municipality of Burnaby, BC, Canada study site.
The results provide insights into the application of the model to calculate ratios of susceptible/infected in specific time frames and urban environments, due to its ability to depict the disease progression based on individuals' interactions. It is demonstrated that the dynamic spatial interactions within the population lead to high numbers of exposed individuals who perform stationary activities in areas after they have finished commuting. As a result, the sick individuals are concentrated in geographical locations like schools and universities.
The GIS-agent based model designed for this study can be easily customized to study the disease spread dynamics of any other communicable disease by simply adjusting the modeled disease timeline and/or the infection model and modifying the transmission process. This type of simulations can help to improve comprehension of disease spread dynamics and to take better steps towards the prevention and control of an epidemic outbreak.
Notes
Cites: Int J Health Geogr. 2008;7:3518606008
Cites: Lancet. 2004 Nov 27-Dec 3;364(9449):1974-8315567014
Cites: Nature. 2003 Oct 16;425(6959):681-514562094
Cites: Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2003 Dec;68(6 Pt 2):06610214754264
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Aug;33(8):2077-817559951
Cites: Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Apr 1;23(7):49-519104045
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 1999 Apr 22;266(1421):859-6710343409
PubMed ID
19656403 View in PubMed
Less detail

An emergency medical services transfer authorization center in response to the Toronto severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180825
Source
Prehosp Emerg Care. 2004 Apr-Jun;8(2):223-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
Russell D MacDonald
Bruce Farr
Michael Neill
John Loch
Bruce Sawadsky
Chris Mazza
Karim Daya
Chris Olynyk
Sandra Chad
Author Affiliation
Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. rmacdonald@bassehospital.on.ca
Source
Prehosp Emerg Care. 2004 Apr-Jun;8(2):223-31
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - methods
Cross Infection - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks
Disease Transmission, Infectious - prevention & control
Emergency Medical Services - methods
Humans
Needs Assessment
Ontario - epidemiology
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - epidemiology - transmission
Transfer Agreement
Abstract
To describe the rapid development and implementation of an innovative emergency medical services (EMS) command, control, and tracking system to mitigate the risk of iatrogenic spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among health care facilities, health care workers, and patients in Ontario, Canada, as a result of interfacility patient transfers.
A working group of stakeholders in health care and transport medicine developed and implemented a medically based command, control, and tracking center for all interfacility (including acute and long-term care) patient transfers in Ontario, Canada. Development and implementation took place in three distinct but overlapping phases: needs assessment, design and implementation, and expansion and ongoing operations.
The needs assessment, design, and implementation were completed in less than 48 hours using existing EMS infrastructure and personnel. The center was successfully handling more than 500 requests for interfacility patient transfer per day within 36 hours of operation and more than 1,100 requests per day within two weeks. Expansion into a new physical space enables 40 staff to process up to 1,500 requests per day. There was no reported spread of SARS resulting from interfacility patient transfers since the center began operation on April 1, 2003, and anecdotal evidence demonstrates it identified up to 13 new SARS cases. The center continues to operate as a part of Ontario's commitment as a result of diligence in transport medicine and infection control, even though no new cases of SARS were reported since June 12, 2003. Further study is needed to determine its overall efficacy at risk mitigation.
Rapid establishment of an EMS-based command, control, and tracking center is possible in the setting of a public health emergency. In addition to risk mitigation, this type of center could provide syndromic surveillance in real time and provide the earliest indication of a potential threat to public health in acute and long-term care facilities.
PubMed ID
15060861 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188611
Source
Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2002 Aug;109(8):362-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
J. Kamphues
Author Affiliation
Institut für Tierenährung, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover.
Source
Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2002 Aug;109(8):362-7
Date
Aug-2002
Language
German
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Feed - adverse effects - analysis - standards
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cattle
Disease Transmission, Infectious - veterinary
Disease Vectors
Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform - diagnosis - prevention & control
European Union
Food Contamination
Germany
Humans
Legislation, Food
Abstract
In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verfütterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verfütterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific risk material) in poultry and swine feeding. In Germany, at least, the question of animal fat utilization for food-producing animals is still unsolved.
PubMed ID
12224466 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses: distribution, phylogeny and evolutionary history.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162755
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2008 Apr;136(4):509-19
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
I V Kuzmin
G J Hughes
A D Botvinkin
S G Gribencha
C E Rupprecht
Author Affiliation
Rabies Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. ibk3@cdc.gov
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2008 Apr;136(4):509-19
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild - virology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Disease Reservoirs
Disease Transmission, Infectious
Geography
Humans
Molecular Epidemiology
Phylogeny
RNA - analysis
Rabies - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Rabies virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
Forty-one newly sequenced isolates of Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses, were genetically compared to each other and to those available from GenBank. Four phylogenetic lineages of Arctic viruses were identified. Arctic-1 viruses circulate in Ontario, Arctic-2 viruses circulate in Siberia and Alaska, Arctic-3 viruses circulate circumpolarly, and a newly described lineage Arctic-4 circulates locally in Alaska. The oldest available isolates from Siberia (between 1950 and 1960) belong to the Arctic-2 and Arctic-3 lineages and share 98.6-99.2% N gene identity with contemporary viruses. Two lineages of Arctic-like viruses were identified in southern Asia and the Middle East (Arctic-like-1) and eastern Asia (Arctic-like-2). A time-scaled tree demonstrates that the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Arctic and Arctic-like viruses is dated between 1255 and 1786. Evolution of the Arctic viruses has occurred through a northerly spread. The Arctic-like-2 lineage diverged first, whereas Arctic viruses share a TMRCA with Arctic-like-1 viruses.
Notes
Cites: Bioinformatics. 1998;14(9):817-89918953
Cites: Virology. 1995 Jun 1;209(2):526-377778285
Cites: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1960 Aug 1;137:183-514407072
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2004 Oct;40(4):617-3115650080
Cites: Virus Genes. 2005 May;30(3):341-715830152
Cites: J Virol. 2005 Aug;79(16):10487-9716051841
Cites: Virus Res. 2006 Mar;116(1-2):1-1016198016
Cites: PLoS Biol. 2006 May;4(5):e8816683862
Cites: Dev Biol (Basel). 2006;125:79-9016878463
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Sep;44(9):3218-2416954251
Cites: Infect Genet Evol. 2006 Nov;6(6):464-7316621724
Cites: Virus Res. 2007 Mar;124(1-2):125-3817129631
Cites: J Gen Virol. 2007 Mar;88(Pt 3):967-8017325371
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Jan;13(1):111-617370523
Cites: Can J Comp Med Vet Sci. 1947 Jun;11(6):154-6020253140
Cites: J Gen Virol. 1999 Oct;80 ( Pt 10):2545-5710573146
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Oct;123(2):325-3610579454
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2001 Jan;37(1):133-711272487
Cites: Bioinformatics. 2001 Dec;17(12):1244-511751241
Cites: Genetics. 2002 Jul;161(3):1307-2012136032
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Aug;131(1):777-9012948379
Cites: Virus Res. 2003 Nov;97(2):65-7914602198
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2004 Apr;40(2):328-3415362836
Cites: Can Vet J. 1974 Oct;15(10):271-814608858
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jan;80(1):70-46185960
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):296-3071634801
Cites: Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1994 Jan-Feb;(2):53-68017128
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 1994 Aug;113(1):137-418062870
Cites: J Gen Virol. 1994 Oct;75 ( Pt 10):2575-837931145
Cites: Acta Virol. 1957 Jul-Dec;1(3-4):220-813545064
PubMed ID
17599781 View in PubMed
Less detail

Are you prepared? Defining occupational health resource needs to prevent infectious disease transmission in the health care sector.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150302
Source
Healthc Manage Forum. 2009;22(1):52-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
S L Pollock
A. Yassi
I. Connell
B. Gamage
R. Copes
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health at UBC.
Source
Healthc Manage Forum. 2009;22(1):52-6
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Disease Transmission, Infectious - prevention & control
Health Resources - organization & administration
Humans
Infection Control - organization & administration
Occupational Diseases - prevention & control
Occupational Health Services
Resource Allocation
Abstract
This article discusses the extent of resource allocation to Occupational Health (OH) to prevent infectious disease exposure and transmission in British Columbia (B.C.). It also characterizes the delineation of roles and responsibilities within OH services in B.C. health care settings and highlights areas where improvements to current OH programs could be made to prevent and control occupational infections. Given the breadth of OH responsibilities, resource allocation in many health care institutions for these services is inadequate and roles and responsibilities may not be clearly delineated.
PubMed ID
19526888 View in PubMed
Less detail

188 records – page 1 of 19.