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Ancient urbanization predicts genetic resistance to tuberculosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297037
Source
Evolution. 65-3: 842–848.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
to assess. If the transition to urban living does result in an increase in disease-based mortality, we might expect to see evidence of increased disease resistance in longer-term urbanized populations, as the result of natural selection. To test this, we determined the frequency of an allele
  1 document  
Author
Barnes, Ian
Duda, Anna
Pybus, Oliver G.
Thomas, Mark G.
Source
Evolution. 65-3: 842–848.
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
File Size
207703
Keywords
Tuberculosis
Saami
Disease Resistance
Evolution
Human
Pathogen
Yakuts
Abstract
A link between urban living and disease is seen in recent and historical records, but the presence of this association in prehistory has been difficult to assess. If the transition to urban living does result in an increase in disease-based mortality, we might expect to see evidence of increased disease resistance in longer-term urbanized populations, as the result of natural selection. To test this, we determined the frequency of an allele (SLC11A1 1729 + 55del4) associated with natural resistance to intracellular pathogens such as tuberculosis and leprosy. We found a highly significantly correlation with duration of urban settlement—populations with a long history of living in towns are better adapted to resisting these infections. This correlation remains strong when we correct for autocorrelation in allele frequencies due to shared population history. Our results therefore support the interpretation that infectious disease loads became an increasingly important cause of human mortality after the advent of urbanization, highlighting the importance of population density in determining human health and the genetic structure of human populations.
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An experimental approach to the immuno-modulatory basis of host-parasite local adaptation in tapeworm-infected sticklebacks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284883
Source
Exp Parasitol. 2017 Sep;180:119-132
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Madeleine Hamley
Frederik Franke
Joachim Kurtz
Jörn Peter Scharsack
Source
Exp Parasitol. 2017 Sep;180:119-132
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - immunology
Animals
Cestoda - immunology - pathogenicity
Cestode Infections - epidemiology - immunology - parasitology - veterinary
Disease Resistance
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - immunology - parasitology
Flow Cytometry - veterinary
Germany - epidemiology
Host-Parasite Interactions - immunology
Iceland - epidemiology
Immunomodulation
Leukocytes - cytology - immunology - metabolism
Respiratory Burst
Smegmamorpha - parasitology
Spain - epidemiology
Virulence
Abstract
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from different origins might differ in virulence reflected in host exploitation rates (parasite indices) and S. solidus excretory-secretory products (SsESP) involved in immune manipulation. In our experimental infections, sticklebacks from Iceland were more resistant to S. solidus infection compared to Spanish and German sticklebacks. Higher resistance of Icelandic sticklebacks seemed to depend on adaptive immunity, whereas sticklebacks of German origin, which were more heavily afflicted by S. solidus, showed elevated activity of innate immune traits. German S. solidus were less successful in infecting and exploiting allopatric hosts compared to their Icelandic and Spanish conspecifics. Nevertheless, exclusively SsESP from German S. solidus triggered significant in vitro responses of leukocytes from naïve sticklebacks. Interestingly, parasite indices were almost identical across the sympatric combinations. Differences in host resistance and parasite virulence between the origins were most evident in allopatric combinations and were consistent within origin; i.e. Icelandic sticklebacks were more resistant and their S. solidus were more virulent in all allopatric combinations, whereas German sticklebacks were less resistant and their parasites less virulent. Despite such differences between origins, the degree of host exploitation was almost identical in the sympatric host-parasite combinations, suggesting that the local evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites resulted in an optimal virulence, maximising parasite fitness while avoiding host overexploitation.
PubMed ID
28322743 View in PubMed
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Association mapping of seedling resistance to spot form net blotch in a worldwide collection of barley.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265385
Source
Phytopathology. 2015 Apr;105(4):500-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Prabin Tamang
Anjan Neupane
Sujan Mamidi
Timothy Friesen
Robert Brueggeman
Source
Phytopathology. 2015 Apr;105(4):500-8
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ascomycota - physiology
Australia
Chromosome Mapping
Chromosomes, Plant - genetics
Denmark
Disease Resistance - genetics
Genetic Markers - genetics
Genotype
Hordeum - genetics - immunology - microbiology
Linkage Disequilibrium
New Zealand
Phenotype
Plant Diseases - immunology - microbiology
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Quantitative Trait Loci - genetics
Seedling - genetics - immunology - microbiology
United States
Virulence
Abstract
Spot form net blotch (SFNB), caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. maculata, is an important foliar disease of barley in major production regions around the world. Deployment of adequate host resistance is challenging because the virulence of P. teres f. maculata is highly variable and characterized minor-effect resistances are typically ineffective against the diverse pathogen populations. A world barley core collection consisting of 2,062 barley accessions of diverse origin and genotype were phenotyped at the seedling stage with four P. teres f. maculata isolates collected from the United States (FGO), New Zealand (NZKF2), Australia (SG1), and Denmark (DEN 2.6). Of the 2,062 barley accessions phenotyped, 1,480 were genotyped with the Illumina barley iSelect chip and passed the quality controls with 5,954 polymorphic markers used for further association mapping analysis. Genome-wide association mapping was utilized to identify and map resistance loci from the seedling disease response data and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data. The best among six different regression models was identified for each isolate and association analysis was performed separately for each. A total of 138 significant (-log10P value>3.0) marker-trait associations (MTA) were detected. Using a 5 cM cutoff, a total of 10, 8, 13, and 10 quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SFNB resistance were identified for the FGO, SG1, NZKF2, and DEN 2.6 isolates, respectively. Loci containing from 1 to 34 MTA were identified on all seven barley chromosomes with one locus at 66 to 69 cM on chromosome 2H common to all four isolates. Six distinct loci were identified by the association mapping (AM) analysis that corresponded to previously characterized SFNB resistance QTL identified by biparental population analysis (QRpt4, QRpt6, Rpt4, Rpt6, Rpt7, and a QTL on 4H that was not given a provisional gene or QTL nomenclature). The 21 putative novel loci identified may represent a broad spectrum of resistance and or susceptibility loci. This is the first comprehensive AM study to characterize SFNB resistance loci underlying broad populations of the barley host and P. teres f. maculata pathogen.
PubMed ID
25870925 View in PubMed
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Composition of human faecal microbiota in resistance to Campylobacter infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278545
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Jan;22(1):61.e1-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
C. Kampmann
J. Dicksved
L. Engstrand
H. Rautelin
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Jan;22(1):61.e1-8
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Biota
Campylobacter Infections - prevention & control
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Disease Resistance
Feces - microbiology
Female
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Humans
Male
Mice
Middle Aged
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Prospective Studies
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sweden
Travel
Young Adult
Abstract
In mice, specific species composition of gut microbiota enhances susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni but little is known about the specific composition of the human gut microbiota in providing protection from infections caused by enteropathogens. Healthy adult individuals, who travelled in groups from Sweden to destinations with an estimated high risk for acquisition of Campylobacter infection, were enrolled. Faecal samples, collected before travelling and after returning home, were cultured for bacterial enteropathogens, and analysed for Campylobacter by PCR and for the species composition of the microbiota by 16S amplicon massive parallel sequencing. The microbiota compositions were compared between persons who became infected during their travel and those who did not. A total of 63 participants completed the study; 14 became infected with Campylobacter, two with Salmonella and 47 remained negative for the enteropathogens tested. After exclusion of samples taken after antimicrobial treatment, 49 individuals were included in the final analyses. Intra-individual stability of the microbiota was demonstrated for samples taken before travelling. The original diversity of the faecal microbiota was significantly lower among individuals who later became infected compared with those who remained uninfected. The relative abundances of bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae, and more specifically its two genera Dorea and Coprococcus, were significantly higher among those who remained uninfected. The travel-related infection did not significantly modify the faecal microbiota composition. Species composition of human gut microbiota is important for colonization resistance to Campylobacter infection. Especially individuals with a lower diversity are more susceptible to Campylobacter infection.
PubMed ID
26369602 View in PubMed
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The Frequency of CCR5del32 Mutation in Populations of Russians, Tatars and Bashkirs of Chelyabinsk Region, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281676
Source
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016 Dec;64(Suppl 1):109-112
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Irina Govorovskaya
Elena Khromova
Tatiana Suslova
Leonid Alexeev
Ilya Kofiadi
Source
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016 Dec;64(Suppl 1):109-112
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alleles
Bone Marrow - metabolism
Disease Resistance - genetics
Female
Gene Deletion
Gene Frequency
Genotype
HIV Infections - ethnology - genetics
Heterozygote
Homozygote
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mutation
Polymorphism, Genetic
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Receptors, CCR5 - genetics
Registries
Russia
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
The distribution of genetic variants associated with natural resistance to viral infections can vary among human ethnic groups due to evolutionary factors, defining the different epidemiologic background of world populations. The polymorphisms, defining the natural resistance to HIV-infection and the rate of progression up to AIDS, are very important since epidemic is still on rise. We have studied the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of CCR5delta32 mutation in major populations inhabiting Chelyabinsk region of the Russian Federation. Genetic survey included the population of 509 potential blood marrow donors: Russians (N = 300), Bashkirs (N = 118) and Tatars (N = 91). The genotyping assay was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). The genotypes were defined by melting curve analysis. The CCR5delta32 allele and CCR5delta32/delta32 genotype are presented in population of Russians in Chelyabinsk region with the frequencies of F x  = 10.83% and P x  = 1.67, for the CCR5delta32 allele and its homozygosity, respectively. In populations of Bashkirs and Tatars CCR5delta32 allele and CCR5delta32/delta32 genotype are presented at lower frequencies of F x  = 6.36%/P x  = 0.85 and F x  = 7.14%/P x  = 1.10, respectively. These data are consistent with the theory of northern origin of the CCR5delta32 mutation.
PubMed ID
28083604 View in PubMed
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Friend or foe? Biological and ecological traits of the European ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in its native environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280064
Source
Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 22;6:21895
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-22-2016
Author
Michelle Cleary
Diem Nguyen
Diana Marciulyniene
Anna Berlin
Rimvys Vasaitis
Jan Stenlid
Source
Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 22;6:21895
Date
Feb-22-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ascomycota - genetics
Disease Resistance
Europe
Fraxinus - genetics - microbiology
Genes, Fungal
Genes, Plant
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation
Plant Diseases - microbiology
Plant Leaves - microbiology
Russia
Abstract
Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, an introduced ascomycete fungus and primary causal agent of European ash dieback, was investigated on Fraxinus mandshurica trees in its native range in Primorye region of Far East Russia. This evidence is the first report of H. fraxineus on healthy, asymptomatic F. mandshurica trees. High-throughput sequencing revealed 49 distinct fungal taxa associated with leaves of F. mandshurica, 12 of which were identified to species level. Phyllosphere fungal assemblages were similar among sites despite being largely geographically distant. Many organisms comprising the foliar fungal community on F. mandshurica in Far East Russia have similarity to those reported inhabiting F. excelsior in Europe based on previous studies. However, Mycosphaerella sp., the most dominant species in this study and detected in nearly all samples, was associated only with F. mandshurica. Genetic diversity of H. fraxineus was significantly higher in the Far East Russian population than in Europe. In contrast to its aggressive behaviour on Fraxinus excelsior in Europe, H. fraxineus appears to be a benign associate of indigenous F. mandshurica that initially induces quiescent and asymptomatic infections in healthy trees prior to active host colonization normally associated with modification of host tissue during senescence.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26900083 View in PubMed
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Genomic signatures of parasite-driven natural selection in north European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295146
Source
Mar Genomics. 2018 Jun; 39:26-38
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2018
Author
Ksenia J Zueva
Jaakko Lumme
Alexey E Veselov
Matthew P Kent
Craig R Primmer
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: ksezue@utu.fi.
Source
Mar Genomics. 2018 Jun; 39:26-38
Date
Jun-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Disease Resistance - genetics
Finland
Fish Diseases - genetics
Fish Proteins - genetics
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genome
Host-Parasite Interactions
Norway
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis - veterinary
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Russia
Salmo salar
Selection, Genetic
Trematoda - physiology
Trematode Infections - genetics
Abstract
Understanding the genomic basis of host-parasite adaptation is important for predicting the long-term viability of species and developing successful management practices. However, in wild populations, identifying specific signatures of parasite-driven selection often presents a challenge, as it is difficult to unravel the molecular signatures of selection driven by different, but correlated, environmental factors. Furthermore, separating parasite-mediated selection from similar signatures due to genetic drift and population history can also be difficult. Populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from northern Europe have pronounced differences in their reactions to the parasitic flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957 and are therefore a good model to search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. We used a dense Atlantic salmon SNP array, along with extensive sampling of 43 salmon populations representing the two G. salaris response extremes (extreme susceptibility vs resistant), to screen the salmon genome for signatures of directional selection while attempting to separate the parasite effect from other factors. After combining the results from two independent genome scan analyses, 57 candidate genes potentially under positive selection were identified, out of which 50 were functionally annotated. This candidate gene set was shown to be functionally enriched for lymph node development, focal adhesion genes and anti-viral response, which suggests that the regulation of both innate and acquired immunity might be an important mechanism for salmon response to G. salaris. Overall, our results offer insights into the apparently complex genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in salmon and highlight methodological challenges for separating the effects of various environmental factors.
PubMed ID
29650372 View in PubMed
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Hemato-Immunological Responses and Disease Resistance in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Fed on a Supplemented Diet of Lactobacillus plantarum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292133
Source
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2017 Mar; 9(1):32-40
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Moheb Ali Pourgholam
Hossein Khara
Reza Safari
Mohammad Ali Yazdani Sadati
Mohammad Sadegh Aramli
Author Affiliation
Caspian Sea International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran.
Source
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2017 Mar; 9(1):32-40
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animal Feed - analysis - microbiology
Animals
Blood Cell Count
Dietary Supplements - analysis - microbiology
Disease Resistance
Fish Diseases - blood - immunology - microbiology
Fishes - immunology - microbiology
Hemoglobins - metabolism
Immunity, Innate
Lactobacillus plantarum - physiology
Probiotics - administration & dosage
Siberia
Streptococcal Infections - blood - immunology - microbiology - veterinary
Streptococcus iniae - physiology
Abstract
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on hemato-immunological parameters and resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 107, 1 × 108 and 1 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu) g-1] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Innate immune responses (immunoglobulin (Ig), alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity) were significantly higher in fish fed the 1 × 108 and 1 × 109 cfu g-1 L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
27619367 View in PubMed
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Host resistance and pathogen infectivity in host populations with varying connectivity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268304
Source
Evolution. 2015 Apr;69(4):926-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Ulla Carlsson-Granér
Peter H Thrall
Source
Evolution. 2015 Apr;69(4):926-38
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Basidiomycota - pathogenicity
Biological Evolution
Caryophyllaceae - genetics - microbiology
Disease Resistance
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Plant Diseases - genetics - microbiology
Sweden
Abstract
Theory predicts that hosts and pathogens will evolve higher resistance and aggressiveness in systems where populations are spatially connected than in situations in which populations are isolated and dispersal is more local. In a large cross-inoculation experiment we surveyed patterns of host resistance and pathogen infectivity in anther-smut diseased Viscaria alpina populations from three contrasting areas where populations range from continuous, through patchy but spatially connected to highly isolated demes. In agreement with theory, isolated populations of V. alpina were more susceptible on average than either patchily distributed or continuous populations. While increased dispersal in connected systems increases disease spread, it may also increase host gene flow and the potential for greater host resistance to evolve. In the Viscaria-Microbotryum system, pathogen infectivity mirrored patterns of host resistance with strains from the isolated populations being the least infective and strains from the more resistant continuous populations being the most infective on average, suggesting that high resistance selects for high infectivity. To our knowledge this study is the first to characterize the impacts of varying spatial connectivity on patterns of host resistance and pathogen infectivity in a natural system.
PubMed ID
25731752 View in PubMed
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Identification of genetic loci associated with higher resistance to pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305713
Source
BMC Genomics. 2020 Jun 03; 21(1):388
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jun-03-2020
Author
Borghild Hillestad
Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad
Aleksei Krasnov
Hooman K Moghadam
Author Affiliation
Benchmark Genetics Norway AS, Sandviksboder 3A, N-5035, Bergen, Norway.
Source
BMC Genomics. 2020 Jun 03; 21(1):388
Date
Jun-03-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Alphavirus - pathogenicity
Alphavirus Infections - genetics - mortality - veterinary
Animals
Chromosome Mapping
Disease Resistance
Fish Diseases - genetics - mortality - virology
Fish Proteins - genetics
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation
Genetic Linkage
Genetic markers
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains - genetics
Immunoglobulin Light Chains - genetics
Myocardium - chemistry
Norway
Pancreatic Diseases - genetics - mortality - veterinary - virology
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Salmo salar - genetics
Selective Breeding
Sequence Analysis, RNA
Abstract
Pancreas disease (PD) is a contagious disease caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) with significant economic and welfare impacts on salmon farming. Previous work has shown that higher resistance against PD has underlying additive genetic components and can potentially be improved through selective breeding. To better understand the genetic basis of PD resistance in Atlantic salmon, we challenged 4506 smolts from 296 families of the SalmoBreed strain. Fish were challenged through intraperitoneal injection with the most virulent form of the virus found in Norway (i.e., SAV3). Mortalities were recorded, and more than 900 fish were further genotyped on a 55?K SNP array.
The estimated heritability for PD resistance was 0.41?±?0.017. The genetic markers on two chromosomes, ssa03 and ssa07, showed significant associations with higher disease resistance. Collectively, markers on these two QTL regions explained about 60% of the additive genetic variance. We also sequenced and compared the cardiac transcriptomics of moribund fish and animals that survived the challenge with a focus on candidate genes within the chromosomal segments harbouring QTL. Approximately 200 genes, within the QTL regions, were found to be differentially expressed. Of particular interest, we identified various components of immunoglobulin-heavy-chain locus B (IGH-B) on ssa03 and immunoglobulin-light-chain on ssa07 with markedly higher levels of transcription in the resistant animals. These genes are closely linked to the most strongly QTL associated SNPs, making them likely candidates for further investigation.
The findings presented here provide supporting evidence that breeding is an efficient tool for increasing PD resistance in Atlantic salmon populations. The estimated heritability is one of the largest reported for any disease resistance in this species, where the majority of the genetic variation is explained by two major QTL. The transcriptomic analysis has revealed the activation of essential components of the innate and the adaptive immune responses following infection with SAV3. Furthermore, the complementation of the genomic with the transcriptomic data has highlighted the possible critical role of the immunoglobulin loci in combating PD virus.
PubMed ID
32493246 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.