Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers.
Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years.
The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat.Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed.
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Dec;70(12):7474-8015574950
The avian flu epizootia among wild waterfowl and poultry in personal farmsteads is described. In 38.9% of tests from a sectioning material from bird's mass destruction the genetic materials of a influenza virus type A (H5N1), and in 24% of tests of serum antibodies to a influenza virus type A (H5N1) in diagnostic titers are revealed. It is carried out serological monitoring among workers of integrated poultry farms and the population. Activation of epizootic process in second half of summer and is predicted by Autumn, 2006. For the prevention of distribution of disease among birds and infection of the person carrying out of a complex of the actions directed on creation of quarantine for a wild waterfowl and restriction of contacts to a poultry, and on vaccine prevention from annual 100% immunization of workers of integrated poultry farms is necessary.
Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7646, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Waterfowl are natural reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens, and abundant resident (nonmigratory) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in urban and suburban environments pose the potential for transmission of Campylobacter through human contact with fecal deposits and contaminated water. In June 2008 and July 2009, we collected 318 fecal samples from resident Canada Geese at 21 locations in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, to test for Campylobacter. All campylobacter species detected were C. jejuni isolates, and prevalences in 2008 and 2009 were 5.0% and 16.0%, respectively. Prevalence of C. jejuni-positive sampling sites was 21% (3/14) and 40% (6/15) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. All C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to a panel of six antimicrobial agents (tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin). We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fla-typing to identify several strain types among these isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of representative isolates revealed six sequence types, of which two (ST-3708 and ST-4368) were new, two (ST-702 and ST-4080) had been detected previously among C. jejuni from geese, and two (ST-991 and ST-4071) were first reported in C. jejuni from an environmental water source and a human illness, respectively. These results indicate a diverse population of antibiotic-susceptible C. jejuni in resident Canada Geese in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, and suggest a need for additional assessment of the public health risk associated with resident Canada Geese in urban and suburban areas.
Staphylococcus aureus colonization was identified in 67/242 (28%) humans, 19/132 (14%) dogs, and 7/161 (4.3%) cats in households in Ontario, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus present in 8 (3.3%) humans, 2 (1.5%) dogs, and 0 cats. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 8 (4.1%) humans, 61 (46%) dogs, and 11 (6.8%) cats, with methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius detected in 1 (0.4%) human, 6 (4.5%) dogs, and 2 (1.2%) cats. Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans was isolated from 1 (0.8%) dog. Regular hand washing was a protective factor for S. pseudintermedius colonization in humans. Indistinguishable S. aureus isolates were present in humans and their dogs in 4/8 households, where S. aureus was isolated concurrently from humans and dogs. Similarly, indistinguishable human and feline strains were isolated in 1 of 2 households with concurrent human/feline colonization. Indistinguishable canine and human S. pseudintermedius isolates were present in 4/9 of households with a human who was colonized.
The study objective was to get more information on C. burnetii prevalence in wild birds and ticks feeding on them, and the potentialities of the pathogen dissemination over Europe by both.
Blood, blood sera, feces of wild birds and ticks removed from those birds or from vegetation were studied at two sites in Russia: the Curonian Spit (site KK), and the vicinity of St. Petersburg (site SPb), and at two sites in Bulgaria: the Atanasovsko Lake (site AL), and the vicinity of Sofia (site SR).
C. burnetii DNA was detected in blood, feces, and ticks by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). All positive results were confirmed by Sanger's sequencing of 16SrRNA gene target fragments. The antibodies to C. burnetii in sera were detected by CFR (complement fixation reaction).
Eleven of 55 bird species captured at KK site hosted Ixodes ricinus. C. burnetii DNA was detected in three I. ricinus nymphs removed from one bird (Erithacus rubecula), and in adult ticks flagged from vegetation: 0.7% I. persulcatus (site SPb), 0.9% I. ricinus (site KK), 1.0% D. reticulatus (AL site). C. burnetii DNA was also detected in 1.4% of bird blood samples at SPb site, and in 0.5% of those at AL site. Antibodies to C. burnetii were found in 8.1% of bird sera (site SPb). C. burnetii DNA was revealed in feces of birds: 0.6% at AL site, and 13.7% at SR site.
Both molecular-genetic and immunological methods were applied to confirm the role of birds as a natural reservoir of C. burnetii. The places of wild bird stopover in Russia (Baltic region) and in Bulgaria (Atanasovsko Lake and Sofia region) proved to be natural foci of C. burnetii infection. Migratory birds are likely to act as efficient "vehicles" in dispersal of C. burnetii -infested ixodid ticks.
Mycobacterium bovis has a wide host range that includes several wildlife species, and this can hamper attempts to eradicate bovine tuberculosis from livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine if common rodent species, namely meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), house mice (Mus musculus), and Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), that inhabit the bovine tuberculosis endemic area of Michigan, can be experimentally infected with M. bovis. The objectives of the study were: 1) to determine if these rodent species can be infected, and if so, to document attendant pathologic processes/pathogenesis; 2) to detect any fecal shedding of M. bovis; and 3) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of the three species to M. bovis infection. For each species (n=36) there were two treatment (n=12/group) and one or two control groups depending on species (n=6-12/group); the maximum study duration was 60 days. The meadow vole treatments consisted of high dose inocula that were given by oral or intranasal routes, whereas the house mice and Norway rats were given only oral inocula at either a high or low dose. Of the three species, meadow voles were most susceptible to M. bovis infection. Upon intranasal inoculation, all 12 voles were infected as determined by gross and microscopic lesions and culture of M. bovis from tissue and feces. Seven of the 12 meadow voles inoculated orally were infected. House mice also were susceptible; M. bovis was isolated from 14 of 24 animals. Only one Norway rat in the high dose treatment group was positive by culture and this was the only animal from which minimal attendant lesions were observed. Results of this study indicate that meadow voles and house mice can be infected with M. bovis and might serve as spillover hosts. Concerted efforts should, therefore, be made to reduce or eliminate these rodents on premises where M. bovis-infected livestock are present.
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has recently been identified in pigs and people that work with pigs, raising concerns about the role of pigs as reservoirs of MRSA for human infection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in pigs and pig farmers in Ontario, Canada and to characterize MRSA strains. Nasal and rectal swabs were collected from 285 pigs from three different age groups from 20 pig farms. Nasal swabs were collected from farm personnel and a brief questionnaire was also administered. The prevalence of MRSA colonization in farms was 45% (9/20) whereas the prevalence in pigs was 24.9% (71/285). There was no difference in MRSA colonization between age groups. The prevalence of MRSA colonization in pig farmers was 20% (5/25). There was a correlation between the presence of MRSA in pigs and humans on farms (P value=0.001). The results of spa typing revealed the predominant strain in pigs and humans was eGenomics spa type 539 (Ridom t034, clonal complex 398) which accounted for 59.2% of isolates and has been reported in pigs in Europe. A common human epidemic clone, CMRSA-2 (USA100, clonal complex 5) was also found in both pigs and pig personnel. Indistinguishable strains were found in pigs and pig personnel on all five farms with a colonized human. This study demonstrates that MRSA is common in pigs in Ontario, Canada, and provides further support to concerns about transmission of MRSA between pigs and humans.
Comparative molecular-genetic typing of Brucella strains isolated in Mongolia from different animal species as well as from humans.
Twenty-one strains of Brucella isolated from different hosts in 7 provinces of Mongolia were typed. Conventional phenotypic methods, genotyping by PCR with primers for genus- and species-specific differentiating targets of Brucella genes as well as multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) with 12 pairs of primers bounding locus variable tandem repeats of different length (from 134 bp to 8 bp).
Phenotypic identification and genotyping by PCR using primers for differentiating DNA markers allowed to attribute 14 isolates to B. melitensis biovar 2, and 7 - to B. abortus biovar 3. By using the MLVA method, connection of MLVA genotypes of 9 Brucella isolates with their reservoir hosts (sheep, cows) was shown providing their circulation in Khentii, Bulqan, and Khubsgul provinces bordering with Russia. Nine isolates from different hosts (camel, yaks, goats, sheep) isolated in Ovorkhangai, Dundgovi, and Dornogovi provinces, which have not border with Russia, had closely related MLVA genotypes indicating an opportunity of migration of pathogenic Brucella species to not-typical hosts.
Molecular-genetic typing of Brucella isolated in Mongolia was done for the first time; levels of their genetic relation and diversity were demonstrated. Circulation of Brucella isolated with specific MLVA genotypes was connected to territories of specific Mongolian provinces. The study proved migration of Brucella to not-typical hosts. Comparative study of isolates circulating in frontier with Mongolia areas of Russia (Irkutsk region, Tyva and Buryat Republics) are necessary to perform.
Proven transmission of Chlamydia psittaci between humans has been described on only one occasion previously. We describe an outbreak which occurred in Sweden in early 2013, where the epidemiological and serological investigation suggests that one patient, severely ill with psittacosis after exposure to wild bird droppings, transmitted the disease to ten others: Two family members, one hospital roommate and seven hospital caregivers. Three cases also provided respiratory samples that could be analysed by PCR. All the obtained C. psittaci sequences were indistinguishable and clustered within genotype A. The finding has implications for the management of severely ill patients with atypical pneumonia, because these patients may be more contagious than was previously thought. In order to prevent nosocomial person-to-person transmission of C. psittaci, stricter hygiene measures may need to be applied.