Two epidemiologically unrelated outbreaks of trichinellosis were registered in Rostov Province in the November and December of 1984 with 16 patients in the Salsk District and 20 patients in Rostov-on-Don. The course of the disease was characterized by 6-20% of severe and 31-45% moderate forms, respectively. The source of the infection was pork that had not been controlled for Trichinella spiralis. Late diagnosis and inadequate treatment in one case led to a fatal outcome. Economic losses accounted for 490,000 rubles (as of 1985). In spite of energetic prophylaxis measures, the situation in the Rostov Province continues to be serious. In 1989-1992, eighteen cases of trichinellosis were registered in the Salsk District again.
On the basis of the analysis of the sanitary and hygienic conditions, epidemiology of a mass disease, clinical picture of the disease during a 6-month trial period the problems of differentiated diagnosis of infectious and toxic processes, examination of capacity for work, the course of diseases were studied in 219 workers who had had legionellosis. The participation of various specialists in the analysis of analogous cases at the enterprises with chemical environmental contamination and developed systems of air conditioning was considered necessary.
Follow-up of 2400 patients aged 17-84 who had previously had influenza or other acute respiratory diseases documented aggravation of the background illness in 34.1% of them. Because of the aggravation 15.3% of the cases were referred to hospitals. Augmentation of symptoms was primarily observed in chronic nonspecific pulmonary lesions (57.9%), bronchial asthma (30.5%), rheumatic fever (38.1%), peptic ulcer (31.6%), renal (42.7%) and thyroid (42.9%) diseases, climacteric neurosis (31.3%), neurovegetative disorders (61.1%). Typical symptoms and syndromes of aggravated background illnesses, principles of managing combined diseases and of respiratory affections prevention in the above patients are presented.
We have previously reported an increase in schizophrenia diagnoses in a population exposed during the second trimester to the 1957 influenza epidemic. These basic findings together with a fair number of replications have been interpreted as supporting a neurodevelopmental contribution to the origins of schizophrenia. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that affective illness may also have a neurodevelopmental origin. We examined the hypothesis that exposure to an influenza epidemic during the second trimester would increase the risk for adult major affective disorder.
The subjects had been exposed as fetuses to the type A2/Singapore influenza epidemic in greater Helsinki, Finland. Control subjects were born in the 6 years before the epidemic.
We found a significant (P .05) were similar. The second-trimester effect remained when we estimated population-based rates (2.1 vs 0.6 per 1000) (P .05) elevation was observed for the bipolar forms of major affective disorder.
These data are consistent with the hypothesis concerning the possible neurodevelopmental contribution to the origins of some forms of major affective disorder, especially unipolar depressive disorder. These encouraging findings, if replicated, may suggest that some mental disorders may stem, in part, from a disturbance in the development of the fetal brain during the second trimester.
Modeling and Projection Section, Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Branch, Public Health Agency of Canada, 100 Eglantine Driveway, Tunney’s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
There is accumulating evidence suggesting that children may drive the spread of influenza epidemics. The objective of this study was to quantify the lead time by age using laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A for the 1995/1996-2005/2006 seasons from Canadian communities and laboratory-confirmed hospital admissions for the H1N1/2009 pandemic strain. With alignment of the epidemic curves locally before aggregation of cases, slight age-specific differences in the timing of infection became apparent. For seasonal influenza, both the 10-19- and 20-29-year age groups peaked 1 week earlier than other age groups, while during the fall wave of the 2009 pandemic, infections peaked earlier among only the 10-19-year age group. In the H3N2 seasons, infections occurred an average of 3.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 6.1) days earlier in the 20-29-year age group than for youth aged 10-19 years, while during the fall pandemic wave, the 10-19-year age group had a statistically significant lead of 3 days compared with both younger children aged 4-9 years and adults aged 20-29 years (P
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