Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital.
This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009.
The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1-57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT
The use of short message services and mobile phone technology for ambulatory care management is the most accessible and most inexpensive way to transition from traditional ambulatory care management to active ambulatory care management in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone technology with traditional ambulatory care management in AH patients. The study included 97 hypertensive patients under active ambulatory care management and 102 patients under traditional ambulatory care management. Blood pressure levels, body mass, and smoking history of patients were analyzed in the study. The duration of study was 1 year. In the active ambulatory care management group, 36% of patients were withdrawn from the study within a year. At the end of the year, 77% of patients from the active care management group had achieved the goal blood pressure level. That was more than 5 times higher than that in the traditional ambulatory care management group (P
Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa.
In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications and patients eventually undergoing curative treatment. The secondary outcome was cost.
The 5 year cumulative incidence of discontinued AS in a competing-risk model was 40%. During the first 5 years of AS patients underwent a median of two biopsy sets, and patients were seen in an outpatient clinic including PSA testing three to four times annually. In total, 38 of the 406 biopsy sessions led to hospital admission and 87 of the 317 patients required treatment for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). With a median of 3.7 years' follow-up, the total cost of AS was euro (€) 1,240,286. Assuming all patients had otherwise undergone primary radical prostatectomy, the cost difference favoured AS with a net benefit of €662,661 (35% reduction).
AS entails a close clinical follow-up with a considerable risk of rebiopsy complication, treatment of BOO and subsequent delayed definitive therapy. This risk should be weighed against a potential economic benefit and reduction in the risk of overtreatment compared to immediate radical treatment.
Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are limited by their generalizability to the broader nontrial population. To provide a context for Acute Study of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF) trial, we designed a complementary registry to characterize clinical characteristics, practice patterns, and in-hospital outcomes of acute heart failure patients.
Eligible patients for the registry included those with a principal diagnosis of acute heart failure (ICD-9-CM 402 and 428; ICD-10 I50.x, I11.0, I13.0, I13.2) from 8 sites participating in ASCEND-HF (n=697 patients, 2007-2010). Baseline characteristics, treatments, and hospital outcomes from the registy were compared with ASCEND-HF RCT patients from 31 Canadian sites (n=465, 2007-2010). Patients in the registry were older, more likely to be female, and have chronic respiratory disease, less likely to have diabetes mellitus: they had a similar incidence of ischemic HF, atrial fibrillation, and similar B-type natriuretic peptide levels. Registry patients had higher systolic blood pressure (registry: median 132 mm Hg [interquartile range 115-151 mm Hg]; RCT: median 120 mm Hg [interquartile range 110-135 mm Hg]) and ejection fraction (registry: median 40% [interquartile range 27-58%]; RCT: median 29% [interquartile range 20-40 mm Hg]) than RCT patients. Registry patients presented more often via ambulance and had a similar total length of stay as RCT patients. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the registry compared with the RCT patients (9.3% versus 1.3%,P
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) may precipitate up to a third of acute heart failure (AHF) cases. We assessed the characteristics, initial management, and survival of AHF patients with (ACS-AHF) and without (nACS-AHF) concomitant ACS.
Data from 620 AHF patients were analyzed in a prospective multicenter study. The ACS-AHF patients (32%) more often presented with de novo AHF (61% vs. 43%; P
Complete following existing guidelines for management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is known to be associated with better outcomes. Partly this is explained by lesser adherence to recommendations in high risk patients. Aim of our study was to assess relationship between degree of following current guidelines and in hospital outcomes independently from initial assessment of risk.
Each key recommendation from guidelines issued between 2008 and 2011 (13 for STE ACS, 12 for NSTE ACS) was given weight of 1. Sum of these units constituted index of guideline adherence (IGA). IGA was retrospectively calculated for 1656 patients included in Russian independent ACS registry RECORD-2 (7 hospitals, duration 04.2009 to 04.2011). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to quartiles of IGA distribution: 1) low adherence group (quartiles I-II); 2) high adherence group (quartiles III-IV).
In low adherence compared with high adherence group there were significantly more patients more or equal 65 years (=0.0007), with chronic heart failure [CHF] (
Research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging for several reasons; in particular, the heterogeneity between patients regarding causes, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. Advances in basic science have failed to translate into successful clinical treatments, and the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations is weak. Because clinical research has been hampered by non-standardised data collection, restricted multidisciplinary collaboration, and the lack of sensitivity of classification and efficacy analyses, multidisciplinary collaborations are now being fostered. Approaches to deal with heterogeneity have been developed by the IMPACT study group. These approaches can increase statistical power in clinical trials by up to 50% and are also relevant to other heterogeneous neurological diseases, such as stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rather than trying to limit heterogeneity, we might also be able to exploit it by analysing differences in treatment and outcome between countries and centres in comparative effectiveness research. This approach has great potential to advance care in patients with TBI.
In an effort to assess and advance the community-based model of chronic care, we reviewed a contemporary spectrum of Canadian chronic disease management and prevention (CDMP) programs with a participatory audience of administrators, academics, professional and non-professional providers and patients. While many questions remain unanswered, several common characteristics of CDMP success were apparent. These included community-based partnerships with aligned goals; inter-professional and non-professional care, including patient self-management; measured and shared information on practices and outcomes; and visible leadership. Principal improvement opportunities identified were the enhanced engagement of all stakeholders; further efficacy evidence for team care; facile information systems, with clear rationales for data selection, access, communication and security; and increased education of, and resource support for, patients and caregivers. Two immediate actions were suggested. One was a broad and continuing communication plan highlighting CDMP issues and opportunities. The other was a standardized survey of team structures, interventions, measurements and communications in ongoing CDMP programs, with a causal analysis of their relation to outcomes. In the longer term, the key needs requiring action were more inter-professional education of health human resources and more practical information systems available to all stakeholders. Things can be better.