Do patients and health care workers have the legal right to know each other's HIV status? Professor Flanagan argues that they do not. Given that with appropriate precautions the risk of transmitting HIV in the health care setting is extremely small and that the discriminatory consequences of HIV disclosure can be extremely high, it is suggested that the right of a patient or a health care worker not to disclose their HIV status must outweigh the other's "right to know."
1. Unsafe anal intercourse (bareback sex) is on the rise within the gay community. 2. Barebacking constitutes a sexual practice with strong HIV-related legal implications. Nurses need to be aware of public health laws to be able to protect clients from undue legal prosecution. 3. Nurses need to be aware of the components of HIV pretest counseling. 4. Adopting a nonjudgmental, matter-of-fact approach is essential in establishing effective therapeutic relationships with clients who engage in bareback sex.
To evaluate the association of primary reason to suspect child sexual abuse with the legal end-point in medically examined, police reported cases.
Observational post hoc analysis of retrospective review of records of 155 medically examined, police reported alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) cases during 2001-2009. Primary referral indications for medical examinations or criminal investigations were analyzed with an end-point in the legal process. The data consists of official investigation documents from University Hospital records, police, crime laboratories, state prosecutor, and courts of Law.
The median age of the children was 7.1 years (range 11 months-17.5 years) at the time when suspicion of sexual abuse was reported to police. Conviction of the alleged perpetrator was significantly more likely in cases where the child's disclosure was the reason for the initial suspicion of CSA, compared to cases with referrals for "suspicious circumstances" (39/92, 42.4% vs. 7/37, 19%, p
Community treatment orders (CTOs) are legal mechanisms by which an individual with a mental illness and a history of non-compliance and potential for violence can be mandated (against their will) to undergo psychiatric treatment in an outpatient setting. Although CTOs are increasingly being adopted by governments as a means of protecting both mentally ill persons and society itself, their use continues to stimulate considerable debate. While there is some evidence of their potential benefits in promoting treatment compliance and reducing hospital stays, there is concern that they infringe on the mental health client's human rights and freedoms. Consideration of the ethical and practical implications of the use of CTOs must continue. In this paper, some of the most pressing issues are identified and discussed.
It is well known that competent patients must be told about the risks of proposed medical procedures. This paper argues that recent professional guidelines and the law of negligence now take matters further by requiring doctors to take reasonable steps in an attempt to ensure that patients understand the risks they are being invited to run, so facilitating meaningful choices and the opportunity to give a properly informed consent.