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12 records – page 1 of 2.

"A visitation of providence:" Public health and eugenic reform in the wake of the Halifax disaster.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104192
Source
Can Bull Med Hist. 2014;31(1):99-122
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Leslie Baker
Source
Can Bull Med Hist. 2014;31(1):99-122
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disasters - history
Eugenics - history - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Health Care Reform - history
History, 20th Century
Human Migration - history
Humans
Institutionalization - history
Nova Scotia
Public Health - history - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Abstract
The Halifax Explosion provided the opportunity for an "experiment in public health" that was meant not only to restore but also to improve the city and its population in the process. The restructuring that occurred during the restoration was influenced by pre-existing ideals and prejudices which were reflected in the goals of the newly formed committees in charge of the reconstruction. The primary emphasis on improvement as well as control was the result of existing regional concerns regarding the emigration of the province's most "desirable" stock, in the form of healthy, educated young men and women, to central Canada and the eastern United States. Public health reforms reflected the eugenic goal of improving the overall quality of the population through education, surveillance, and inspection, resorting finally to institutionalizing people who public health officials determined were genuinely deficient.
PubMed ID
24909020 View in PubMed
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Climate Degradation and Extreme Icing Events Constrain Life in Cold-Adapted Mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296102
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 01 18; 8(1):1156
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
01-18-2018
Author
J Berger
C Hartway
A Gruzdev
M Johnson
Author Affiliation
Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA. jberger@wcs.org.
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 01 18; 8(1):1156
Date
01-18-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Body Size
Climate Change - mortality
Cold Climate
Disasters - history
Female
History, 19th Century
History, 21st Century
Male
Otters - physiology
Rain
Ruminants - physiology
Snow
Tsunamis - history
Whales - physiology
Abstract
Despite the growth in knowledge about the effects of a warming Arctic on its cold-adapted species, the mechanisms by which these changes affect animal populations remain poorly understood. Increasing temperatures, declining sea ice and altered wind and precipitation patterns all may affect the fitness and abundance of species through multiple direct and indirect pathways. Here we demonstrate previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow (ROS) events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges on the Arctic's largest land mammal. Using novel field data across seven years and three Alaskan and Russian sites, we show arrested skeletal growth in juvenile muskoxen resulting from unusually dry winter conditions and gestational ROS events, with the inhibitory effects on growth from ROS events lasting up to three years post-partum. Further, we describe the simultaneous entombment of 52 muskoxen in ice during a Chukchi Sea winter tsunami (ivuniq in Iñupiat), and link rapid freezing to entrapment of Arctic whales and otters. Our results illustrate how once unusual, but increasingly frequent Arctic weather events affect some cold-adapted mammals, and suggest that an understanding of species responses to a changing Arctic can be enhanced by coalescing groundwork, rare events, and insights from local people.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29348632 View in PubMed
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Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjunctures in Norse Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126637
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 6;109(10):3658-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-6-2012
Author
Andrew J Dugmore
Thomas H McGovern
Orri Vésteinsson
Jette Arneborg
Richard Streeter
Christian Keller
Author Affiliation
Geography, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, Scotland, United Kingdom. andrew.dugmore@ed.ac.uk
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 6;109(10):3658-63
Date
Mar-6-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Climate change
Culture
Disasters - history
Environment
Geography
Greenland
History, Ancient
Humans
Mammals
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
Norse Greenland has been seen as a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper, however, recognizes the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland and argues that, although climate change had impacts, the end of Norse settlement can only be truly understood as a complex socioenvironmental system that includes local and interregional interactions operating at different geographic and temporal scales and recognizes the cultural limits to adaptation of traditional ecological knowledge. This paper is not focused on a single discovery and its implications, an approach that can encourage monocausal and environmentally deterministic emphasis to explanation, but it is the product of sustained international interdisciplinary investigations in Greenland and the rest of the North Atlantic. It is based on data acquisitions, reinterpretation of established knowledge, and a somewhat different philosophical approach to the question of collapse. We argue that the Norse Greenlanders created a flexible and successful subsistence system that responded effectively to major environmental challenges but probably fell victim to a combination of conjunctures of large-scale historic processes and vulnerabilities created by their successful prior response to climate change. Their failure was an inability to anticipate an unknowable future, an inability to broaden their traditional ecological knowledge base, and a case of being too specialized, too small, and too isolated to be able to capitalize on and compete in the new protoworld system extending into the North Atlantic in the early 15th century.
Notes
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 23;107(12):5306-1020212157
Cites: Arctic Anthropol. 2005;42(1):103-2021774148
Cites: Arctic Anthropol. 2007;44(1):12-3621847839
PubMed ID
22371594 View in PubMed
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Famine, disease, and mortality patterns in the parish of Borshevka, Russia, 1830-1912.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192886
Source
Popul Stud (Camb). 1998 Nov;52(3):357-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
S L Hoch
Author Affiliation
University of Iowa.
Source
Popul Stud (Camb). 1998 Nov;52(3):357-68
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Communicable Diseases - history
Disasters - history
Food Supply - history
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Mortality
Population Dynamics
Russia
Starvation - history
Abstract
Scholars have projected a dismal image of nineteenth-century, rural Russia as a society repeatedly punctuated by crop failures, famine, starvation, and epidemics of famine-related diseases. But there has been no rigorous attempt, using appropriate methods, to assess the nature of demographic crises in Russia and their contribution to overall mortality and population growth. The pattern of mortality evident in the parish under examination is distinguished by an extremely high incidence of infant, diarrhoeal diseases and childhood, infectious diseases. This unfavourable disease environment and resulting high rates of infant and early childhood mortality were more closely related to fertility levels, household size, housing conditions, and weaning practices than to annual or seasonal food availablity and the nutritional status of the population. In a disease-driven society, the susceptibility to infection and the force of infection can, to a considerable extent, be determined by demographic factors, familial norms, and climatic constraints.
PubMed ID
11623525 View in PubMed
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[Features of leptospirosis in the Krasnodar Territory].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182067
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2003 Nov-Dec;(6):68-71
Publication Type
Article
Author
I A Kalashnikov
V M Mezentsev
M O Mkrtchan
G M Grizhebovskii
G D Briukhanova
Author Affiliation
Territorial Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance, Krasnodar.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2003 Nov-Dec;(6):68-71
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Disasters - history
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - veterinary
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Leptospirosis - epidemiology - history - veterinary
Population Surveillance
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Sanitation
Abstract
The data on leptospirosis morbidity in the Krasnodar Territory, one of the most epidemiologically unsafe areas in this infectious disease in the Russian Federation, are presented. High morbidity registered in this territory greatly depends on the epidemic outbreaks appearing due to defects in the realization of a complex of sanitary and veterinary measures. The Krasnodar Territory is liable to be affected by natural calamities. In 1997 a severe outbreak of leptospirosis took place here in connection with the high flood. Due to timely prophylactic measures the epidemiological consequencies of the similar calamity occurring in 2002 were brought to a minimum.
PubMed ID
14716982 View in PubMed
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The Halifax explosion and the birth of a surgical specialty-myth or reality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143815
Source
J Pediatr Surg. 2010 May;45(5):855-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
D Alex Gillis
Shane D Lewis
Danny C Little
Author Affiliation
The IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3K 6R8. alex.gillis@iwk.nshealth.ca
Source
J Pediatr Surg. 2010 May;45(5):855-8
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Correspondence as Topic - history
Disasters - history
Explosions - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Nova Scotia
Pediatrics - history
Specialties, Surgical - history
Abstract
The work of Dr William E. Ladd after a devastating explosion in Halifax in 1917 has been credited with his decision to devote his subsequent career to the betterment of surgical care for children. He has been recognized as the "father of pediatric surgery" in North America. The authors present a written refutation of this causal association by Dr Ladd.
Notes
Comment In: J Pediatr Surg. 2010 May;45(5):106920438957
PubMed ID
20438913 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
J Pediatr Surg. 2010 May;45(5):1069
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010

Low Atlantic hurricane activity in the 1970s and 1980s compared to the past 270 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95625
Source
Nature. 2007 Jun 7;447(7145):698-701
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-7-2007
Author
Nyberg Johan
Malmgren Björn A
Winter Amos
Jury Mark R
Kilbourne K Halimeda
Quinn Terrence M
Author Affiliation
Geological Survey of Sweden, Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala, Sweden. johan.nyberg@sgu.se
Source
Nature. 2007 Jun 7;447(7145):698-701
Date
Jun-7-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atlantic Ocean
Disasters - history - statistics & numerical data
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Plankton - metabolism
Rain
Seasons
Time Factors
Abstract
Hurricane activity in the North Atlantic Ocean has increased significantly since 1995 (refs 1, 2). This trend has been attributed to both anthropogenically induced climate change and natural variability, but the primary cause remains uncertain. Changes in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes in the past can provide insights into the factors that influence hurricane activity, but reliable observations of hurricane activity in the North Atlantic only cover the past few decades. Here we construct a record of the frequency of major Atlantic hurricanes over the past 270 years using proxy records of vertical wind shear and sea surface temperature (the main controls on the formation of major hurricanes in this region) from corals and a marine sediment core. The record indicates that the average frequency of major hurricanes decreased gradually from the 1760s until the early 1990s, reaching anomalously low values during the 1970s and 1980s. Furthermore, the phase of enhanced hurricane activity since 1995 is not unusual compared to other periods of high hurricane activity in the record and thus appears to represent a recovery to normal hurricane activity, rather than a direct response to increasing sea surface temperature. Comparison of the record with a reconstruction of vertical wind shear indicates that variability in this parameter primarily controlled the frequency of major hurricanes in the Atlantic over the past 270 years, suggesting that changes in the magnitude of vertical wind shear will have a significant influence on future hurricane activity.
Notes
Comment In: Nature. 2007 Jun 7;447(7145):647-917554294
Comment In: Nature. 2008 Feb 21;451(7181):E5; discussion E618288135
PubMed ID
17554304 View in PubMed
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Megadrought and megadeath in 16th century Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190478
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Apr;8(4):360-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2002
Author
Rodolfo Acuna-Soto
David W Stahle
Malcolm K Cleaveland
Matthew D Therrell
Author Affiliation
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico.
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Apr;8(4):360-2
Date
Apr-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disasters - history
Disease Outbreaks - history
Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral - epidemiology - history - transmission
History, 16th Century
Humans
Mexico - epidemiology
Zoonoses - epidemiology - history - transmission
Abstract
The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest") were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.
Notes
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2000 May;181(5):1569-7310823755
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 1997 Apr-Jun;3(2):95-1049204290
Cites: Med Hist. 2000 Jul;44(3):341-6210954969
PubMed ID
11971767 View in PubMed
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[Military medicine and medicine of accidents].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137722
Source
Voen Med Zh. 2010 Sep;331(9):17-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
I M Chizh
Source
Voen Med Zh. 2010 Sep;331(9):17-22
Date
Sep-2010
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bashkiria
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Disasters - history
Earthquakes - history
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Military Medicine - history - organization & administration - standards - trends
War
Yugoslavia
Abstract
The article presents an observe of such parts of military medicine as intensive aid and operative treatment on the place of case, contestation against infectious diseases, preservation of psychic health, medical and social rehabilitation. Were lighted successful activity of military physicians during liquidation of Chernobyl accident (1986), earthquakes in Armenia (1988), railway accident in Bashkiria (1989) and other accidents. Experience of military medicine (particularly using medical units of special purposes) was used in proving of conception of medicine of accidents, and in organization of medical supply of troops in armed conflicts of restricted scale--in effectuating of antiterrorist operations in Northern Caucasus (1994-1996, 1999-2002), in effectuating of peacemaking operation in Kosovo (1999-2003), natural disasters.
PubMed ID
21254524 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.