The aim of this study was to analyse whether new therapeutic options--the introduction of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) in 1989 and the laparoscopic technique in 1992--altered the surgical treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in Sweden.
Data obtained from the Centre for Epidemiology (EpC) on patients undergoing surgery for GORD from 1987 to 1997 was analysed, and the information was validated with a questionnaire to all surgical departments.
The questionnaire gave a response rate of 94%, and the figures corresponded well with those obtained from the EpC. In 1987, 456 antireflux procedures were performed. Ten years later this figure had increased to 1303. This approximately threefold increase started before the introduction of PPI and was even more pronounced during the following few years. The development of laparoscopic antireflux surgery did not alter this increase. In 1997, 76% of the procedures were performed laparoscopically. The fundoplication rate rose from 5.5 to 12.7 procedures/100,000 inhabitants. The rates varied greatly among different counties; 7 of 23 still had a fundoplication rate of less than 10 in 1997. The median number of procedures per hospital in 1997 was 10. Only two departments accomplished more than 50 antireflux procedures.
Within 5 years the laparoscopic technique replaced the open procedure as the method of choice. However, the increase in the frequency of antireflux surgery was apparent even before the introduction of laparoscopy.
TNF inhibitors (TNFi) have been shown to reduce the need for surgery in Crohn's disease, but few studies have examined their effect beyond the first year of treatment.
To conduct a register-based observational cohort study in Sweden 2006-2014 to investigate the risk of bowel resection in bowel surgery naïve TNFi-treated Crohn's disease patients and whether patients on TNFi =12 months are less likely to undergo bowel resection than patients discontinuing treatment before 12 months.
We identified all individuals in Sweden with Crohn's disease through the Swedish National Patient Register 1987-2014 and evaluated the incidence of bowel resection after first ever dispensation of adalimumab or infliximab from 2006 and up to 7 years follow-up.
We identified 1856 Crohn's disease patients who had received TNFi. Among these patients, 90% treatment retention was observed at 6 months after start of TNFi and 65% remained on the drug after 12 months. The cumulative rates of surgery in Crohn's disease patients exposed to TNFi years 1-7 were 7%, 13%, 17%, 20%, 23%, 25% and 28%. Rates of bowel resection were similar between patients with TNFi survival
Use of exogenous hormones, in the form of oral contraceptives (OCs), has been linked consistently to risk of Crohn's disease (CD). Nonetheless, it is not clear how OCs might contribute to the progression of CD.
We conducted a prospective study of female patients with CD (age, 16-51 y), identified from the inpatient and outpatient care components of the Swedish National Patient Register from January 2002 through December 2013. Information on current OC use was obtained from the Prescribed Drug Register starting in July of 2005 and updated until December of 2013. Primary outcomes were defined as first CD-related surgery and first steroid prescription. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling with time-varying covariates to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (MV-adjusted HRs).
We identified 482 incident cases of surgery among 4036 patients with CD, with a median follow-up period of 58 months. Compared with nonusers, the MV-adjusted HRs for surgery were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.63) for past users and 1.30 (95% CI, 0.89-1.92) for current users. The risk of surgery increased with longer duration of use (Ptrend = .036) and higher prescribed daily dose (Ptrend = .016). Specifically, for women with more than 3 years of OC use, the MV-adjusted HR for surgery was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.06-2.67). The association was confined to the combination type of OC. We estimated that for every 83 patients with CD receiving the combination type of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year, 1 extra surgery is required. The rate of steroid prescriptions did not appear to increase with past or current use of OCs, compared with patients who have not taken OCs (all Pcomparisons > .20).
In a nationwide analysis of patients in Sweden, long-term use of OCs, particularly the combination type, was associated with an increased risk of surgery among women with established CD. Clinicians carefully should evaluate and monitor contraceptive options among women with established CD.
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An analysis of reporting and statistical data showed the considerable changes in clinical-epidemiological indices of gastric and duodenum ulcer at the period from 1998 to 2012. The prevalence of the disease and the number of primary patients decreased in 2-3 times. The reduction of the rate of perforations and ulcerous bleeding had been observed. However, the authors noted, that a tendency of frequency of occurrence increased and efficacy indices reduced in the last years. The rate of postoperative lethality raised in the cases of perforated ulcer. On this basis, the authors recommend to reconsider the existing opinion about further extension of out-patient treatment of patients with given pathology.
To describe neonatal and childhood outcomes of a contemporary cohort of infants with gastroschisis.
Observational, single center, inception cohort of children born with gastroschisis from January 2005 to December 2008.
Of 63 infants, 61 survived to hospital discharge and 39 were seen for follow-up. Complications included sepsis (37%), necrotizing enterocolitis (10%), parenteral nutrition related cholestasis (25%), and short bowel syndrome (13%). Of survivors, 5% had visual impairment and 10% had hearing loss. No child tested had mental delay or cerebral palsy. Early gestational age predicted death or disability (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38, 0.96; p=0.033). There was a high incidence of prescription medications for presumed gastroesophageal reflux (90%). Some infants continued to require tube feeds (15%). There were improvements in longitudinal growth reflected in increasing z-scores.
Although children with gastroschisis are at risk for disability, childhood outcomes are encouraging.
Easily accessible predictors of disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce, and it remains largely unknown whether a family history of IBD predicts the course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to compare the course of disease in familial and sporadic cases of IBD in a nationwide cohort study.
From national registries, covering a population of 8,295,773 individuals, we obtained information on date and year of diagnosis of IBD cases, gender, age, and family ties. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios for IBD-related hospitalization, biological treatment, and surgery in familial versus sporadic cases of IBD.
A total of 27,886 IBD cases, including 1006 IBD-relative pairs, were followed-up for up to 16 years, totaling 164,979 person-years. We observed no difference in risk of hospital admissions between familial and sporadic cases of IBD. However, patients with familial CD had significantly higher risk of major surgery than sporadic CD cases after 2 years of disease duration (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.07). Also, sensitivity analysis suggested a slightly reduced time from diagnosis to first tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitor treatment among familial CD and UC cases as compared with sporadic cases.
We found only minor differences in surgery rates and tumor necrosis factor exposure, between familial and sporadic cases of IBD. These findings may represent purely social rather than functional effects, which is consoling for newly diagnosed CD or UC patients with a family history of IBD.
The purpose of this study was to chart changes in surgical treatment of inguinal or femoral hernia in Norway from 1990-91 to 1999-2003.
Data were compiled from the Norwegian Patient Registry based on procedure coding for inguinal and femoral hernia repair.
The annual number of femoral hernia repair procedures was constant throughout the study period. From 1990-91 to 2003, the mean age dropped from 66 for both sexes to 63 among men and 62 among women. The female-to-male ratio was constant at 2/1. Emergency admittances went down from 56% to 43% and mean hospitalisation was down from five to four days. The use of mesh repairs increased from 3% (1990-91) to 37% (2003). Incidence rates for inguinal hernia repair increased throughout the period, from 1.8 to 2.3 per 10,000 women and from 20.6 to 32.1 per 10,000 men. Mean age was as down from 63 (both sexes) to 59 among men and 57 among women. The female-to-male ratio remained constant at 1/12. Emergency admittances dropped from 13% to 6%. Mean days of hospitalisation fell from 4 in 1990-91 to 1 in 2003. Two out of three inguinal hernia repairs were done ambulatory in the last year of the study period. The use of mesh repairs increased from 1% in 1990-91 to 78% in 2003. Laparoscopic procedures were rarely used (2% in 2003).
In 2003, the majority of inguinal hernia repairs were performed as day surgery with open mesh techniques, in line with European guidelines.
There is an increasing demand for high-quality data for the outcome of health care. Diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract involve large patient groups often presenting with serious or life-threatening conditions. Complications may affect treatment outcomes and lead to increased mortality or reduced quality of life. A continuous, risk-adjusted monitoring of major complications is important to improve the quality of health care to patients undergoing gastrointestinal resections. We present the development of the Norwegian Registry for Gastrointestinal Surgery, a national registry for colorectal, upper gastrointestinal, and hepato-pancreato-biliary resections in Norway.
A narrative and qualitative presentation of the development and current state of the registry.
We present the variables and the analysis tools and provide examples for the potential in quality improvement and research. Core characteristics include a strictly limited set of variables to reflect important risk factors, the procedure performed, and the clinical outcomes.
A registry with the potential to present complete national cohort data is a powerful tool for quality improvement and research.