We describe the 40-year weight history and adult morbidity and mortality in a cohort of 504 overweight children, aged 2 months to 16 years, who were admitted for investigation of their overweight to four children's hospitals in Stockholm between 1921 and 1947. Follow-up information was gathered by questionnaire at 10-year intervals, most recently in 1980-1983 (n = 458), on weight history (based on the body mass index (BMI = kg/m2)), as well as prevalence of cardiovascular disease (n = 143), diabetes (n = 39), and cancer (all types (n = 20)), reported during the 40 years of follow-up, and mortality from all causes (n = 55), determined from death certificate. The sample of overweight children remained overweight as adults; after age 55 years, the BMI began to decline for both genders. Female subjects were heavier than their male counterparts from postpuberty onward. Subjects who died by the 40-year follow-up and those reporting cardiovascular disease were significantly (P
We studied 149 healthy children at 22 months of age and 74 at 40 months of age, employing a 24-hour dietary record based on premailed food measurement guide and telephone questionnaire. Parents cooperated in 94% of contacts. Chronic digestive complaints decreased from 27% to 5% of the sample over the study period: constipation from 16% to 3%, chronic diarrhea from 8% to 1%, and abdominal pain from 5% to 1%. Excessive fluid intake (1470 +/- 600 vs 840 +/- 300 mL/d) correlated most strongly for seven children at 22 months experiencing alternating symptoms of chronic diarrhea and constipation or abdominal pain. Many other children tolerated dietary extremes without complaint. All macronutrient categories except dietary fiber intake increased over the study period. Thus, excessive fluid intake may provoke symptoms suggesting the irritable bowel syndrome in a susceptible group of younger children. Failure to increase fiber intake from 22 to 40 months of age leaves children on an immature diet whose effects require further study.
Iron and fluorine concentrations and water mineralization and hardness, which exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations, were found to cause an increase in overall morbidity and morbidity from skeletal-and-muscular, urogenital, and digestive system involvement in the population of the Krasnoyarsk Region. A quantitative relationship were found between the concentrations of iron, the hardness and dry residue of water and the incidence rates of urogenital, skeletal-and-muscular and digestive diseases. The consumption of potable water contaminated with chloroform and methane tetrachloride presents unacceptable carcinogenic risks to the population of the Krasnoyarsk Region.
Endemic, biogeochemical peculiarities of the Chuvash Republic territory were analyzed. The regional statistical analysis of the biogeochemical province influence on trace and major mineral elements content in food stuff was carried out. The conducted study let us reveal the following chief problems in the nutritional status of the population of the Republic which led to the inferior health rate and were associated with the biogeochemical peculiarities of the region: selenium, copper, manganese, ferrum deficiency in the food ration.
The paper presents the results of a hygienic study to identify the leading regional risk factors for noninfectious diseases of the digestive tract (DT) in the Primorye Territory. Data on 55 environmental factors and registered deaths by 5 groups of noninfectious DT diseases over 15 years were collected for the study. The authors used an original scheme for identifying risk factors for DT diseases, by concurrently applying a correlation and regression analysis. The chemical composition of portable water from the water supply system, soil contamination by trace elements, and socioeconomic factors showed 5.6-23.2% responsibility for the geographical distribution of the bulk of DT diseases. At the same time, many years' rises in morbidity rates among children and adolescents by 5.6-18.2% and adults by as high as 50% are attributable to altered daily diets and socioeconomic factors and to reduced access to medical care. The nature of the found risk factors allows one to direct the main ways to prevent non-infectious DT diseases among the region's population.
Nutrition is one of the most important determinants of human health. The investigation has determined the pattern of actual nutrition of the Samara Region, its influence on the occurrence of cardiovascular, endocrine, urogenital, and musculoskeletal, and digestive diseases. Emphasis is placed on unbalanced diets excluding meat, by increasing the consumption of bread and cereals, which is a universal factor for the development of visceral diseases. Balanced nutrition using full-value natural products in the optimum ratio is a major condition for health preservation and a means for prevention of the development of various diseases.