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Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164436
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Mar;70(3):776-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Dorothea F K Rawn
Barbara Niedzwiadek
Benjamin P Y Lau
Martin Saker
Author Affiliation
Food Research Division, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, 2203D, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9. thea_rawn@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Mar;70(3):776-9
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Chromatography, Liquid
Consumer Product Safety
Cyanobacteria - metabolism
Dietary Supplements - analysis - microbiology - standards
Fluorescence
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Portugal
Sensitivity and specificity
Spirulina - metabolism
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Tropanes - analysis
Abstract
Blue-green algae and spirulina are marketed in health food stores and over the Internet as food supplements in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The reported benefits of consuming these products include improved digestion, strengthening of the immune system, and relief from the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Some of these products have been found to contain elevated concentrations of microcystins, which are known hepatotoxins. In addition to producing microcystins, Anabaena sp. and Aphanizomenon sp. also produce the potent neurotoxin anatoxin-a. Samples of food supplements containing blue-green algae and spirulina were collected in Portugal and from urban centers across Canada in 2005. Extracts of these supplements were analyzed to determine the presence and concentrations of anatoxin-a and its two main metabolites, dihydroanatoxin-a and epoxyanatoxin-a. Initial analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, and confirmation required the use of LC with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The HPLC with fluorescence detection indicated no anatoxin-a, but four samples were suspected to contain either dihydroanatoxin-a or epoxyanatoxin-a at 0.1 to 0.2 microg/g. LC-MS-MS results, however, indicated no trace of either transformation product in any sample analyzed. The detection limits for anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, and epoxyanatoxin-a were similar for both fluorescence detection (0.2 to 0.3, 0.4 to 1.4, and 0.2 to 1.5 pg on the column, respectively) and mass spectrometry (0.3 to 1.5, 0.3 to 0.8, and 0.5 to 0.8 pg on the column, respectively). Because of the higher specificity of the LC-MS-MS analysis, all tested food supplement samples were considered free of anatoxin-a and its transformation products.
PubMed ID
17388076 View in PubMed
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Hemato-Immunological Responses and Disease Resistance in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Fed on a Supplemented Diet of Lactobacillus plantarum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292133
Source
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2017 Mar; 9(1):32-40
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Moheb Ali Pourgholam
Hossein Khara
Reza Safari
Mohammad Ali Yazdani Sadati
Mohammad Sadegh Aramli
Author Affiliation
Caspian Sea International Sturgeon Research Institute, Rasht, Iran.
Source
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2017 Mar; 9(1):32-40
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animal Feed - analysis - microbiology
Animals
Blood Cell Count
Dietary Supplements - analysis - microbiology
Disease Resistance
Fish Diseases - blood - immunology - microbiology
Fishes - immunology - microbiology
Hemoglobins - metabolism
Immunity, Innate
Lactobacillus plantarum - physiology
Probiotics - administration & dosage
Siberia
Streptococcal Infections - blood - immunology - microbiology - veterinary
Streptococcus iniae - physiology
Abstract
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on hemato-immunological parameters and resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 107, 1 × 108 and 1 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu) g-1] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Innate immune responses (immunoglobulin (Ig), alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity) were significantly higher in fish fed the 1 × 108 and 1 × 109 cfu g-1 L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
27619367 View in PubMed
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