Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (
Sweetened beverage intake has risen in past decades, along with a rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Our objective was to examine the relationship between beverage intake patterns and overweight and obesity among Canadian children. Beverage intake patterns were identified by cluster analysis of data from the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Intake data were obtained from a single 24-hour recall, height and weight were measured, and sociodemographic data were obtained via interview. Data on children and adolescents aged 2-18 years who met inclusion criteria (n = 10?038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5 years (male and female), 6-11 years (female), 6-11 years (male), 12-18 years (female), and 12-18 years (male). ?² test was used to compare rates of overweight and obesity across clusters. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between overweight and obesity and beverage intake patterns, adjusting for potential confounders. Clustering resulted in distinct groups of who drank mostly fruit drinks, soft drinks, 100% juice, milk, high-fat milk, or low-volume and varied beverages (termed "moderate"). Boys aged 6-11 years whose beverage pattern was characterized by soft drink intake (553 ± 29 g) had increased odds of overweight-obesity (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.1) compared with a "moderate" beverage pattern (23 ± 4 g soft drink). No significant relationship emerged between beverage pattern and overweight and obesity among other age-sex groups. Using national cross-sectional dietary intake data, Canadian children do not show a beverage-weight association except among young boys who drink mostly soft drinks, and thus may be at increased risk for overweight or obesity.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and children's weight status, while considering associated covariates. MS ferments carbohydrates from the diet and contributes to caries by lowering the pH in dental plaque. In adults, high counts of MS in saliva have been associated with overweight, but this has not been shown in children.
Cross-sectional study investigating salivary counts of MS, BMI Z-score, waist circumference, meal frequency, sugar propensity and sleep duration, in children.
Children (n 271) aged 4-11 years.
Medium-high counts of MS were positively associated with higher BMI Z-score (OR=1·6; 95% CI 1·1, 2·3). Positive associations were also found between medium-high counts of MS and more frequent meals per day (OR=1·5; 95% CI 1·1, 2·2), greater percentage of sugar-rich foods consumed (OR=1·1; 95% CI 1·0, 1·3) and female sex (OR=2·4; 95% CI 1·1, 5·4). A negative association was found between medium-high counts of MS and longer sleep duration (OR=0·5; 95% CI 0·3, 1·0).
BMI Z-score was associated with counts of MS. Promoting adequate sleep duration and limiting the intake frequency of sugar-rich foods and beverages could provide multiple benefits in public health interventions aimed at reducing dental caries and childhood overweight.
An objective dietary biomarker would help clarify the contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake to obesity and chronic disease risk. Previous studies have proposed the carbon isotope ratio (d(13)C) as a biomarker of SSB intake but found associations that were of modest size and confounded by other components of the diet. We investigated whether the d(13)C values of nonessential amino acids (d(13)CNEAA) in RBCs could provide valid biomarkers that are more specific to SSBs. We assessed the associations of RBC d(13)CNEAA with SSB intake in a study population of 68 Yup'ik people, using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure d(13)CNEAA and four 24-h dietary recalls to assess intake. Among RBC nonessential amino acids, alanine d(13)C (d(13)Calanine) was strongly correlated with intake of SSBs, added sugar, and total sugar (r = 0.70, 0.59, and 0.57, respectively; P
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The reported skew distribution of caries prevalence in preschool children, with a small group of children with very high caries prevalence, stresses the importance of early identification for prevention.The present study aimed to describe the caries prevalence in a group of Swedish preschool children and to identify caries risk factors in this population. 221 children, 2 to 3 years old, agreed to participate in the study (82%). A standardized questionnaire was used to describe socio-economic factors, dietary and oral hygiene habits and exposure to fluoride. Initial and manifest dental caries was diagnosed and the presence of plaque was visually observed without disclosing solution. Saliva and plaque samples were collected for identification of mutans streptococci (MS). For statistical analysis,the Student's t-test,the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used. The caries prevalence among the 2 to 3 year-olds was 7 and 18 percent respectively. An association between early childhood caries and a number of factors was found e.g. the presence of MS and visible plaque, nocturnal meals, frequent sugar consumption, mothers' state of employment and immigrant background. The Public Dental Health Service has been successful in decreasing the number of children with caries, but the challenge remains to be able to control caries in the high-risk group. The skew distribution, with many children without caries and a smaller group with very high caries prevalence, was confirmed.The study provided insight into various factors, useful for monitoring children at risk of developing early childhood caries.
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer. Frequent consumption of sugar and high-sugar foods may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer by inducing frequent postprandial hyperglycemia, increasing insulin demand, and decreasing insulin sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine prospectively the association of the consumption of added sugar (ie, sugar added to coffee, tea, cereals, etc) and of high-sugar foods with the risk of pancreatic cancer in a population-based cohort study of Swedish women and men. DESIGN: A food-frequency questionnaire was completed in 1997 by 77 797 women and men aged 45-83 y who had no previous diagnosis of cancer or history of diabetes. The participants were followed through June 2005. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.2 y, we identified 131 incident cases of pancreatic cancer. The consumption of added sugar, soft drinks, and sweetened fruit soups or stewed fruit was positively associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. The multivariate hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest consumption categories were 1.69 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.89; P for trend = 0.06) for sugar, 1.93 (1.18, 3.14; P for trend = 0.02) for soft drinks, and 1.51 (0.97, 2.36; P for trend = 0.05) for sweetened fruit soups or stewed fruit. CONCLUSION: High consumption of sugar and high-sugar foods may be associated with a greater risk of pancreatic cancer.
The aim of the study was to investigate the determinants of reported snack consumption in adolescents residing in Belfast, Northern Ireland and Helsinki, Finland. Ten % random samples of 14-15 yr old Belfast (n = 628) and Helsinki (n = 600) adolescents were obtained. A questionnaire assessed their demography, oral health knowledge, attitudes and the consumption of cariogenic snacks containing non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Five hundred and eighty-nine (94%) questionnaires were returned in Belfast and 441 (74%) questionnaires in Helsinki. Belfast adolescents had significantly higher levels of oral health knowledge and higher consumption rates for snacks containing NMES. The Helsinki adolescents had more positive attitudes towards their oral health. Multivariant analysis showed that demography was the most direct determinant of cariogenic snacking. The acquisition of oral health knowledge played a minor role. There is a need to develop tailored and focused programmes to promote healthier snacking regimes in adolescents.
Dietary carbohydrates have been implicated in relation to prostate cancer.
Our objective was to examine the associations between dietary intakes of carbohydrates, fiber, and their food sources and risk of prostate cancer, overall and by case severity, in the MalmÃ??????Ã?????Ã????Ã???Ã??Ã?Â¶ Diet and Cancer cohort.
The analysis included 8128 men aged 45-73 y without a history of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes and who were classified as adequate energy reporters. After a median follow-up time of 15 y, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 817 men. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model associations between energy-adjusted nutrient and food intakes with risk of incident prostate cancer, with competing risk of death from non-prostate cancer causes taken into account.
After adjustment for age and other known or potential risk factors, we observed no associations between total carbohydrates or dietary fiber and prostate cancer. We observed positive associations between the intake of low-fiber cereals with overall and low-risk prostate cancer and between intakes of cake and biscuits and rice and pasta with low-risk prostate cancer (all P-trend
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;96(6):1249-5123134894
To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG).
A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003.
All women in Denmark were eligible to participate if they spoke Danish and were planning to carry to term.The pregnant women were recruited and enrolled during their first antenatal visit (6-10 weeks of gestation).
Participants included women with live-born singletons and complete data on dietary intake and GWG, leaving 46 262 women for the analysis.
Macronutrient intake was quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire administered in the 25th week of gestation. The P/C ratio and added sugar intake were examined in quintiles.
GWG was based on self-reported weight in gestational weeks 12 and 30 and defined as gain in g/week. We used multivariable linear regression, including adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, to calculate relative change in GWG and 95% CI.
Average GWG was 471(224) g/week. The adjusted weight gain was 16 g/week lower (95% CI 9 to 22, p for trend 20%E vs
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;65(4 Suppl):1220S-1228S; discussion 1229S-1231S9094926
In the interpretation of dietary trends, it is important to consider the potential effect of modifications in the dietary assessment method. Therefore, our objective was to explore the comparability of data obtained at two time points by a semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) which has had slight modifications over time. In the national dietary surveys among Norwegian 2-year-olds, diet was assessed by an SFFQ which underwent modifications between the 1999 survey and the 2007 survey. In the present study, fifty-nine families with a 2-year-old child participated by completing both the SFFQ in a crossover design within a month's time. With regard to the reported intake of energy and nutrients, the largest significant differences observed between the two questionnaires were for carbohydrates and added sugar. According to intake of food groups, significant differences were observed for five out of sixteen food groups. Spearman's correlation coefficients for energy, nutrients and food groups ranged from 0.43 (Ca) to 0.85 (soft drinks). Most Bland-Altman plots indicated broad limits of agreement. The differences between the two questionnaires can be explained by changes in the questionnaires, changes in the food composition databases used and random variation. Comparing differences between the questionnaires by maternal educational level, number of children and type of day care revealed minor differences. In conclusion, this study showed that at the group level there was reasonable comparability between the two questionnaires, except for carbohydrates, added sugar and some food groups. Moreover, there were moderate to high correlations for energy, nutrients and food groups.