Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z).
This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school.
Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p
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Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (
The aims were to find out if schools' sweet-selling was associated with pupils' sweet consumption, and whether the school's guideline about leaving the school area was associated with pupils' tobacco and sweet consumption.
Two independently collected datasets from all Finnish upper secondary schools (N = 988) were linked together. The first dataset on schools' sweet-selling (yes/no) and guideline about leaving school area (yes/no) was collected via school principals in 2007 using an Internet questionnaire with a response rate of 49%, n = 480. The second dataset on pupils' self-reported: weekly school-time (0, never; 1, less than once; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times), overall sweet consumption frequencies (1, never; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times; 4, 6-7 times) and smoking and snuff-using frequencies (1, never; 2, every now and then; 3 = every day) was collected in 2006-2007 in the School Health Promotion Study from pupils. An average was calculated for the school-level with a response rate 80%, n = 790. The total response rate of the linked final data was 42%, n = 414. Mean values of self-reported sweet and tobacco consumption frequencies between sweet-selling and non-sweet-selling schools and between schools with different guidelines were compared using Mann-Whitney test.
Pupils in sweet-selling schools and in schools without a guideline about leaving the school area, more frequently used sweet products and tobacco products than their peers in other schools.
Schools may need help in building permanent guidelines to stop sweet-selling in school and to prevent leaving the school area to decrease pupils' sweet consumption and smoking.
To evaluate the relationship between energy available from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and total energy availability.
Ecological study using food availability data from 1976 to 2007 from the database of the Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System. The average available total daily energy per capita (kJ (kcal)/d per capita) and percentage of energy from SSB (%E/d per capita) were calculated. A regression analysis was performed with average available total daily energy per capita (kJ (kcal)/d per capita) as the outcome and percentage of energy from SSB as the independent variable (%E/d per capita).
Between 1976 and 2007, total available energy increased on average by 669 kJ (160 kcal)/d per capita, and energy from SSB by 155 kJ (37 kcal)/d per capita. Total available energy increased by 434 kJ (104 kcal)/d per capita for a one unit increase in average percentage of energy from SSB.
Total available energy increased as the contribution of energy available from SSB increased. This increase was larger than that explained by energy availability from SSB alone. Reducing energy from soft drinks may contribute to larger reductions in total energy available for consumption.
The aim was to elucidate whether variables recorded in early childhood would have a long-lasting predictive value of poor dental health at the age of 10 years in a prospectively followed Finnish population-based cohort setting. The second aim was to find new tools for preventive work in order to improve dental health among children. Poor dental health (dmft + DMFT >or= 5) at 10 years of age was associated with child's nocturnal juice drinking at 18 months. It was associated with the following factors at age 3 years: frequent consumption of sweets; infrequent tooth brushing; plaque and caries on teeth. Of family factors, the following were significant: father's young age at birth of the child; mother's basic 9-year education; mother's caries (i.e. several carious teeth per year), and father's infrequent tooth brushing. Early childhood risk factors of poor dental health seem to be stable even after 10 years of life and the changing of teeth from primary to permanent ones. In preventive work, dental health care staff could offer support to those parents with risk factors in their child rearing tasks.
According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition, children and teens get about one-fifth of their daily calories from beverages. As they get older, boys and girls drink less milk and fruit juice, and more soft drinks and fruit drinks. By ages 14 to 18, boys' average daily consumption of soft drinks matches their consumption of milk, and exceeds their consumption of fruit juice and fruit drinks. Beverage consumption by children and teens varies little by province, except in Newfoundland and Labrador where it tends to be comparatively high, and in British Columbia where it tends to be low.
To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters.
Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design.
Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004).
A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, ?2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used.
Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters.
Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.
Little is known of the beverage intake patterns of Canadian children or of characteristics within these patterns. The objective was to determine beverage intake patterns among Canadian children and compare intakes of fourteen types of beverages, along with intakes of vitamin C and Ca, and sociodemographic factors across clusters.
Dietary information was collected using one 24 h recall. Sociodemographic data were collected by interview. Cluster analysis was used to determine beverage intake patterns. Pearson's ?2 and 95 % CI were used to test differences across clusters.
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2·2.
Children aged 2-18 years with plausible energy intake and complete sociodemographic data (n 10 038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5-year-old boys and girls, 6-11-year-old girls, 6-11-year-old boys, 12-18-year-old girls and 12-18-year-old boys.
Five beverage clusters emerged for children aged 2-5 years, six clusters for children aged 6-11 years (both sexes) and four clusters for those aged 12-18 years (both sexes). Sweetened beverage clusters appeared in all age-sex groups. Intakes of sweetened beverages ranged from 553 to 1059 g/d and contributed between 2 % and 18 % of total energy intake. Girls 6-11 years of age in the 'soft drink' cluster had lower Ca intake compared with other clusters in that age-sex group. Age and ethnicity differed across clusters for most age-sex groups. Differences for household food security status and income were found; however, no pattern emerged.
Patterns in beverage intake among Canadian children include beverages that are predominantly sugar sweetened. Public health nutrition professionals can use knowledge about beverage patterns among children, as well as the characteristics of these groups, in the development of nutritional programmes and policies.
Sweetened beverage intake has risen in past decades, along with a rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Our objective was to examine the relationship between beverage intake patterns and overweight and obesity among Canadian children. Beverage intake patterns were identified by cluster analysis of data from the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Intake data were obtained from a single 24-hour recall, height and weight were measured, and sociodemographic data were obtained via interview. Data on children and adolescents aged 2-18 years who met inclusion criteria (n = 10?038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5 years (male and female), 6-11 years (female), 6-11 years (male), 12-18 years (female), and 12-18 years (male). ?² test was used to compare rates of overweight and obesity across clusters. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between overweight and obesity and beverage intake patterns, adjusting for potential confounders. Clustering resulted in distinct groups of who drank mostly fruit drinks, soft drinks, 100% juice, milk, high-fat milk, or low-volume and varied beverages (termed "moderate"). Boys aged 6-11 years whose beverage pattern was characterized by soft drink intake (553 ± 29 g) had increased odds of overweight-obesity (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.1) compared with a "moderate" beverage pattern (23 ± 4 g soft drink). No significant relationship emerged between beverage pattern and overweight and obesity among other age-sex groups. Using national cross-sectional dietary intake data, Canadian children do not show a beverage-weight association except among young boys who drink mostly soft drinks, and thus may be at increased risk for overweight or obesity.