Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z).
This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school.
Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p
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Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and essential hypertension (EH) are two of several manifestations of the insulin resistance syndrome. Although subjects with NIDDM and subjects with EH share a common defect in carbohydrate metabolism, only diabetics are advised to avoid sugar. We tested the theory that an adverse effect of diuretics treatment in men with EH with respect to risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) would depend on the intake of dietary sugar using sugar in hot beverages as a marker. The cohort consisted of 2,899 men from the Copenhagen Male Study aged 53-74 years (mean 63) who were without overt cardiovascular disease. Potential confounders were: age, alcohol,smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, cotinine, NIDDM,and social class. A total of 340 men took antihypertensives; 211 took diuretics (95% thiazides and related agents), and 129 used other antihypertensives. During 6 years, 179 men (6.2%) had a first IHD event. Among the 340 men taking antihypertensives, the incidence rate was 11%. Diuretics use was associated with a high risk of IHD in hypertensive men with a relatively high intake of dietary sugar; the cumulative incidence rate was 22%; in diuretics treated men with a low intake of sugar, the rate was 7%. After controlling for potential confounders, relative risk (95% ci.) was 3.1(1.3-7.6), p = 001. Among the 129 men who took other forms of antihypertensive drugs, the IHD incidence rate was 8%, and independent of the intake of sugar. The results indicate that the risk of IHD in hypertensives using diuretics is associated with intake of dietary sugar, which may explain at least some of the discouraging effects of antihypertensive agents on the reduction of risk of IHD.
The aim of this study, conducted in 1994, was to examine the association between approximal caries and sugar consumption in teenagers residing in three fluoride-deficient areas in Iceland while controlling for a number of behavioral, residential and microbiological factors. One hundred and fifty subjects (mean age 14 years) selected from the Icelandic Nutritional Survey (INS) were examined radiographically and they completed questionnaires about sugar consumption frequency. Total grams of sugar intake were obtained from the INS for each subject. Caries experience on approximal surfaces, diagnosed from radiographs, was used as the dependent variable in the analyses. Altogether 45.2% of subjects were caries free on approximal surfaces. The overall sample was found to have a mean DFS on approximal surfaces of 2.73 (s=4.36) per subject. Average daily total sugar intake was 170 g per subject and the mean number of sugar-eating occasions between meals was 5.32 (s=6.29) per subject. The regression model indicated that the frequency of between-meal sugar consumption was associated with approximal caries, with frequency of candy consumption being the most important of the sugar variables. In multivariate analysis, no relationship was found between dental caries and total daily intake of sugar, although a significant relationship between total sugar consumption and presence of caries was seen in bivariate analysis. Between-meal consumption of sugar remains a risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries, especially in populations with moderate-to-high levels of dental caries experience.
Dental caries (tooth decay) is a significant public health problem in Alaska Native children. Dietary added sugars are considered one of the main risk factors. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we used a validated hair-based biomarker to measure added sugar intake in Alaska Native Yup'ik children ages 6-17 years (N?=?51). We hypothesized that added sugar intake would be positively associated with tooth decay.
A 66-item parent survey was administered, a hair sample was collected from each child, and a dental exam was conducted. Added sugar intake (grams/day) was measured from hair samples using a linear combination of carbon and nitrogen ratios. We used linear and log-linear regression models with robust standard errors to test our hypothesis that children with higher added sugar intake would have a higher proportion of carious tooth surfaces.
The mean proportion of carious tooth surfaces was 30.8 % (standard deviation: 23.2 %). Hair biomarker-based added sugar intake was associated with absolute (6.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.2 %, 11.6 %; P?=?.02) and relative increases in the proportion of carious tooth surfaces (24.2 %; 95 % CI: 10.6 %, 39.4 %; P?
Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery.
We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery.
This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry.
Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types.
This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery.
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (
The aims were to find out if schools' sweet-selling was associated with pupils' sweet consumption, and whether the school's guideline about leaving the school area was associated with pupils' tobacco and sweet consumption.
Two independently collected datasets from all Finnish upper secondary schools (N = 988) were linked together. The first dataset on schools' sweet-selling (yes/no) and guideline about leaving school area (yes/no) was collected via school principals in 2007 using an Internet questionnaire with a response rate of 49%, n = 480. The second dataset on pupils' self-reported: weekly school-time (0, never; 1, less than once; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times), overall sweet consumption frequencies (1, never; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times; 4, 6-7 times) and smoking and snuff-using frequencies (1, never; 2, every now and then; 3 = every day) was collected in 2006-2007 in the School Health Promotion Study from pupils. An average was calculated for the school-level with a response rate 80%, n = 790. The total response rate of the linked final data was 42%, n = 414. Mean values of self-reported sweet and tobacco consumption frequencies between sweet-selling and non-sweet-selling schools and between schools with different guidelines were compared using Mann-Whitney test.
Pupils in sweet-selling schools and in schools without a guideline about leaving the school area, more frequently used sweet products and tobacco products than their peers in other schools.
Schools may need help in building permanent guidelines to stop sweet-selling in school and to prevent leaving the school area to decrease pupils' sweet consumption and smoking.
To evaluate the relationship between energy available from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and total energy availability.
Ecological study using food availability data from 1976 to 2007 from the database of the Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System. The average available total daily energy per capita (kJ (kcal)/d per capita) and percentage of energy from SSB (%E/d per capita) were calculated. A regression analysis was performed with average available total daily energy per capita (kJ (kcal)/d per capita) as the outcome and percentage of energy from SSB as the independent variable (%E/d per capita).
Between 1976 and 2007, total available energy increased on average by 669 kJ (160 kcal)/d per capita, and energy from SSB by 155 kJ (37 kcal)/d per capita. Total available energy increased by 434 kJ (104 kcal)/d per capita for a one unit increase in average percentage of energy from SSB.
Total available energy increased as the contribution of energy available from SSB increased. This increase was larger than that explained by energy availability from SSB alone. Reducing energy from soft drinks may contribute to larger reductions in total energy available for consumption.
The aim was to elucidate whether variables recorded in early childhood would have a long-lasting predictive value of poor dental health at the age of 10 years in a prospectively followed Finnish population-based cohort setting. The second aim was to find new tools for preventive work in order to improve dental health among children. Poor dental health (dmft + DMFT >or= 5) at 10 years of age was associated with child's nocturnal juice drinking at 18 months. It was associated with the following factors at age 3 years: frequent consumption of sweets; infrequent tooth brushing; plaque and caries on teeth. Of family factors, the following were significant: father's young age at birth of the child; mother's basic 9-year education; mother's caries (i.e. several carious teeth per year), and father's infrequent tooth brushing. Early childhood risk factors of poor dental health seem to be stable even after 10 years of life and the changing of teeth from primary to permanent ones. In preventive work, dental health care staff could offer support to those parents with risk factors in their child rearing tasks.