The account of quantitative and qualitative structure of diets of children of children's houses has revealed infringements in organisation of mode of a meals, and also unbalance of diet on structure of food substances, including on iodine, that can promote development of iodine-dependence diseases.
To assess the adequacy and variability of the diet served to Tarahumara children in indigenous boarding schools.
Records of food and drinks served for meals, weighed daily, were obtained from Monday through Friday for 10 consecutive weeks in two selected boarding schools. Nutrient intake for Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays was calculated and analyzed for weeks 3, 5 and 7.
The number of food items used per week ranged from 33 to 46. The most frequently utilized items were cooking oil, fortified corn tortilla, milk, onion, sugar and beans. Total energy served per day fluctuated between 1309 and 2919 Kcal; proteins comprised 10.5 to 21.2% (45 to 127 g/day), carbohydrates 40.7 to 61.9% (145 to 433 g/day), and lipids 22.5 to 48.1% (45 to 125 g/day) of the total. Daily micronutrient content ranges were: iron 15-33 mg, calcium 686-1795 mg, zinc 8-19 mg, vitamin A 118-756 mcg, vitamin B(9) 42-212 mcg, and vitamin B(12) 0.8-5 mcg.
There was significant daily variability in the diet, which was hypercaloric due to the high lipid content, and yet insufficient in vitamins B(9), B(12) and A.
In the article there are presented data on the chemical composition of breast milk in females with preterm labor in the Primorye Territory, who were in the Department of newborns for premature babies of the Municipal Institution of Health "Children's city clinical hospital" in Vladivostok during 2010-2011 to care for their newborn infants. Laboratory studies were performed in the Federal State Institution of Health "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Primorye Territory."
In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking.
To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population.
Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern.
The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA.
All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds.
Food specimens have been collected, by means of the double-portion technique, from Greenland Eskimo hunters and their wives, in all seven persons, on seven consecutive days. Their food was found to contain more protein and less carbohydrates than average Danish food and an almost equal amount of fat. Compared with Danish food, the fatty acid pattern of the consumed lipids--essentially of mammalian marine origin--showed a higher content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially C20:5) and lower contents of linoleic and linolenic acids. However, the sum of the polyunsaturated fatty acids was smaller than in Danish food. Using Keys' formula, describing the serum cholesterol level as a function of the nutritional fatty acids, the essentially lower serum choelsterol level found in Greenland Eskimos was not explained by our findings. It is suggested instead to be a special metabolic effect of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine mammals. There might be a similar effect on the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein concentrations, explaining the much lower plasma concentrations of these components in Eskimos than in Western populations. Our findings might have an essential bearing on the difference in morbidity from coronary atherosclerotic disease between these populations.
In the winter of 1976 an examination of the composition of Eskimo food was carried out in north western Greenland. Duplicate specimens of diets collected from 50 adults, equal numbers of males and females, were analyzed for water, ash, protein, fat, individual fatty acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrate. The results are compared with those of typical Danish diets. Seal and the fish are predominant Eskimo food. Marked differences between Eskimo and Danish food were found. The Eskimo diets were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, the ratio to saturated fatty acids was 0.84 as compared with 0.24 in Danes. The polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominantly of the linolenic class (n-3) in Eskimos and the linoleic class (n-6) in Danes. Monoenes other than palmitoleic and oleic acids were high in Eskimo diets, but negligible in Danish. The results are related to previous examinations of the plasma lipids in Eskimos. The rarity of ischemic heart disease in Greenland Eskimos may partly be explained by the antithrombotic effect of the long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid prevalent in diets rich in marine oils.
To describe the dietary composition of the New Nordic Diet (NND) and to compare it with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)/Danish Food-based Dietary Guidelines (DFDG) and with the average Danish diet.
Dietary components with clear health-promoting properties included in the DFDG were included in the NND in amounts at least equivalent to those prescribed by the DFDG. The quantities of the other dietary components in the NND were based on scientific arguments for their potential health-promoting properties together with considerations of acceptability, toxicological concerns, availability and the environment. Calculations were conducted for quantifying the dietary and nutrient composition of the NND.
The NND is characterized by a high content of fruits and vegetables (especially berries, cabbages, root vegetables and legumes), fresh herbs, potatoes, plants and mushrooms from the wild countryside, whole grains, nuts, fish and shellfish, seaweed, free-range livestock (including pigs and poultry) and game. Overall, the average daily intakes of macro- and micronutrients in the NND meet the NNR with small adjustments based on evidence of their health-promoting properties.
The NND is a prototype regional diet that takes palatability, health, food culture and the environment into consideration. Regionally appropriate healthy diets could be created on similar principles anywhere in the world.
The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded over seven consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes of potatoes (130 %, 95 % CI 2·07, 2·58), fish (48 %, 95 % CI 1·33, 1·65), cheese (25 %, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·36), vegetables (16 %, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·21), eggs (10 %, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19) and beverages (6 %, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·09), and lower intakes of bread (13 %, 95 % CI 0·84, 0·89) and fats (6 %, 95 % CI 0·90, 0·98) were found among the children during the NND period than in the control period (all, P