To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults.
Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored.
Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years.
Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively.
The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.
A comparative analysis of the factual nutrition and health indices for 1970-2001 was made involving 2950 persons aged 60-89 years, residents of Ukraine. The state of nutrition of 530 single non-working citizens of NIS states, being taken care of by a social care service, was studied. The assortment structure of food products is sharply reduced, the contents of main nutrients and biologically active substances are unbalanced. The is conditioned by poor socio-economic of the people of this age category, on the one hand and by age-related changes of the digestive system, taste sensitivity, etc., on the other. It has been shown that more than 15% of older has a protein-energetic malnutrition.
The objective was to review evidence addressing the optimal time to initiate dialysis treatment. The database was derived from an evidence-based review of the medical literature and from the Canada-United States peritoneal dialysis study. The publications were divided into (1) those addressing the clinical impact of early versus late referral to a dialysis program; (2) those evaluating the association between residual renal function at initiation of dialysis and the concurrent nutritional status; (3) those evaluating the association between residual renal function at initiation of dialysis and subsequent clinical outcomes, including patient survival. There were five studies evaluating early versus late referral, three cohort design and two case-control design. Late referrals had worse outcomes than early referrals. The former had more serious comorbidity and many had been noncompliant with follow-up. The latter were more likely to have hereditary renal disease. Renal function was slightly worse at initiation among those referred late. Three studies addressed the association between renal function at initiation of dialysis and concurrent nutritional status. Two showed decreased protein intake with diminished glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Poor nutritional status is associated with decreased patient survival among both incident and prevalent dialysis patients. The third study reported excellent patient survival among patients with late initiation of dialysis. These patients had received a supplemented low-protein diet and were not malnourished at initiation of dialysis. Three groups have studied the association between GFR at initiation of dialysis and clinical outcomes. Decreased GFR at initiation of dialysis is associated with a increased probability of hospitalization and death. None of these studies has used the rigorous randomized clinical trial design, and they are therefore subject to bias. Referral time bias, comorbidity, patient compliance, and starting time bias are potential confounders. A randomized clinical trial is required to resolve this important issue. However, there is sufficient evidence to justify initiation of dialysis at a Ccr of 9 to 14 mL/min if there is any clinical or laboratory evidence of malnutrition.
BACKGROUND: Studies from developing countries indicate that intake of animal protein, especially of milk, is associated with greater velocity of linear growth in childhood. Whether the same association exists in industrialized countries, where protein intake is high, is not clear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine associations between protein intake, serum insulin-like growth factor I (sIGF-I) concentrations, and height in healthy children. DESIGN: We analyzed the associations between protein intake, sIGF-I concentrations, and height in 2.5-y-old children. Diet (7-d record) and sIGF-I (radioimmunoassay) data were available from 90 children (54 boys). RESULTS: The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of protein intake were 2.4, 2.9, and 4.0 g. kg(-1). d(-1), respectively; 63% was animal protein. In multiple linear regressions with adjustment for sex and weight, height (cm) was positively associated with intakes of animal protein (g/d) [0.10 +/- 0.038 (b +/- SE); P = 0.01] and milk (0.0047 +/- 0.002; P = 0.007), but not with those of vegetable protein or meat. The sIGF-I concentration was significantly associated with intakes of animal protein (1.4 +/- 0.53; P = 0.01) and milk (0.049 +/- 0.024; P = 0.045), but not with those of vegetable protein or meat. sIGF-I concentrations were positively associated with height (0.019 +/- 0.008; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Milk intake was positively associated with sIGF-I concentrations and height. An increase in milk intake from 200 to 600 mL/d corresponded to a 30% increase in circulating IGF-I. This suggests that milk compounds have a stimulating effect on sIGF-I concentrations and, thereby, on growth.
We developed an oral sensitization protocol for food proteins for the rat. Young Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to 1 mg ovalbumin (OVA) by daily gavage dosing for 42 days without the use of an adjuvant. OVA-specific IgE and IgG responses were determined by ELISA. On an oral challenge with OVA some clinical symptoms of food allergy-like effects on the respiratory system, blood pressure, and permeability of the gastrointestinal barrier were studied. In addition, BN rats were orally exposed to a total hen egg white protein (HEW) extract and cow's milk (CM) and the specificities of induced antibody responses were compared with the specificities of antibodies in sera from egg- and milk-allergic patients using immunoblotting. Animals orally exposed to the allergens developed specific IgE and IgG antibodies which recognized the same proteins compared with antibodies from egg- or CM-allergic patients. Among the various clinical symptoms of food allergy, gut permeability was increased after an oral challenge. In addition, some animals demonstrated a temporary decrease in breathing frequency or systolic blood pressure. The results obtained show that the Brown Norway rat is a suitable animal model for inducing specific IgG and IgE responses on daily intragastric dosing of OVA without the use of an adjuvant. Moreover, local immune-mediated effects on oral challenge are observed. The observation that enterally exposed BN rats and food-allergic patients demonstrate antibody responses to a comparable selection of proteins on exposure to different protein mixtures (HEW and CM) further supports the suitability of the BN rat as an animal model for food allergy research and for the study of the allergenicity of (novel) food proteins.
The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL).
Over a one year period, 195 randomly selected adults completed four 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) by telephone and one subsequent self-administered FFQ. Estimates of energy and nutrients derived from the 24-HDRs and FFQs were compared (protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin D, and calcium). Data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation coefficients, cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots.
The mean nutrient intake values of the 24-HDRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein in men. Sex and energy-adjusted de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for each nutrient varied from 0.13 to 0.61. Except for protein in men, all correlations were statistically significant with p?
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Population study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. INTERVENTIONS: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages. Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. RESULTS: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible. The between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake appeared to be stable over the range of age and BMI in both sexes. As compared to estimated total energy expenditure, both diet assessment methods underestimated energy intake by approximately 20%. For both methods the under-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. CONCLUSIONS: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council, the FREJA programme.
Diet is a major modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect the components of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association between relative proportions of macronutrients and the components of the metabolic syndrome in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes. In all, 791 individuals without nephropathy, with plausible energy intake and known metabolic syndrome status, taking part in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study were included in the analyses. Dietary data were collected with a diet record. The association between the relative macronutrient intake and the outcome variables were analysed using multivariable nutrient density substitution models. The relative proportions of dietary macronutrients or fatty acids were not associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome. In men, however, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with lower odds of the waist component, whereas favouring either carbohydrates or fats over proteins was associated with lower odds of the blood pressure component of the metabolic syndrome. In women, substituting carbohydrates for fats was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol concentration. Substituting carbohydrates or fats for alcohol or protein was, in men, associated with lower systolic blood pressure. To conclude, the relative distribution of macronutrients may have some relevance for the metabolic syndrome.
OBJECTIVES: In animal studies, low energy intake (EI) has been associated with a longer lifespan. We examine whether EI is an independent risk factor for prospective all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and cancer mortality in humans. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 28 098 individuals, mean age 58.2 years, completed questionnaires on diet and life-style and attended a physical examination during 1991-96. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Information on mortality was acquired from national registries during a mean follow-up time of 6.6 years. Subjects were categorized by quartiles of total EI. The first quartile was used as a reference point in estimating multivariate relative risks (RR; 95% CI, Cox's regression model). Adjustments were made for confounding by age and various life-style factors. RESULTS: The lowest total mortality was observed for women in the third quartile (RR: 0.74; CI: 0.57-0.96) and for men in the second and third quartiles (RR: 0.85; CI: 0.69-1.04 and RR: 0.85; CI: 0.69-1.04 respectively). Similar U-shaped patterns were observed for cardiovascular mortality amongst women and cancer mortality amongst men. A statistically significant trend (P = 0.029) towards lower cardiovascular mortality from the first to the fourth quartile was observed for men. CONCLUSIONS: Low caloric consumers did, on average, not have lower mortality than average or high caloric consumers. Generally, individuals approximately meeting national recommendations for total EI had the lowest mortality. For men, high caloric intake was associated with lower cardiovascular mortality.