The account of quantitative and qualitative structure of diets of children of children's houses has revealed infringements in organisation of mode of a meals, and also unbalance of diet on structure of food substances, including on iodine, that can promote development of iodine-dependence diseases.
To assess the adequacy and variability of the diet served to Tarahumara children in indigenous boarding schools.
Records of food and drinks served for meals, weighed daily, were obtained from Monday through Friday for 10 consecutive weeks in two selected boarding schools. Nutrient intake for Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays was calculated and analyzed for weeks 3, 5 and 7.
The number of food items used per week ranged from 33 to 46. The most frequently utilized items were cooking oil, fortified corn tortilla, milk, onion, sugar and beans. Total energy served per day fluctuated between 1309 and 2919 Kcal; proteins comprised 10.5 to 21.2% (45 to 127 g/day), carbohydrates 40.7 to 61.9% (145 to 433 g/day), and lipids 22.5 to 48.1% (45 to 125 g/day) of the total. Daily micronutrient content ranges were: iron 15-33 mg, calcium 686-1795 mg, zinc 8-19 mg, vitamin A 118-756 mcg, vitamin B(9) 42-212 mcg, and vitamin B(12) 0.8-5 mcg.
There was significant daily variability in the diet, which was hypercaloric due to the high lipid content, and yet insufficient in vitamins B(9), B(12) and A.
To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults.
Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored.
Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years.
Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively.
The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) use body stores (capital) and food intake (income) for survival and reproduction. Intakes of low-nitrogen (N) food declined in winter and increased in spring (51-83 g dry matter kg(-0.75) d(-1)). Reindeer calved before regaining food intake, whereas caribou calved 28 d later. Body N was conserved by minimizing oxidation of amino acid N to urea. Maternal protein stored from early winter was used for 96% of fetal growth in reindeer but only 84% of fetal growth in later-birthing caribou. Both subspecies rely on maternal body protein for 91% of the protein deposited in the neonate via milk over the first 4 wk. All females lost body protein over winter, but lactating females continued to lose protein while nonreproductive females regained protein. Net costs of lactation above maintenance were greater for N (110%-130%) than for energy (40%-59%). Large fat stores in reindeer spare body protein from oxidation in winter, whereas in caribou, less fat with the same body protein favors migration when food is inadequate. The resilience of Rangifer populations to variable patterns of food supply and metabolic demand may be related to their ability to alter the timing and allocation of body protein to reproduction.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Nutrition Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Committee on Nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Breast-feeding. A commentary in celebration of the International Year of the Child, 1979.
1. Full-term newborn infants should be breastfed, except if there are specific contraindications or when breast-feeding is unsuccessful. 2. Education about breast-feeding should be provided in schools for all children, and better education about breast-feeding and infant nutrition should be provided in the curriculum of physicians and nurses. Information about breast-feeding should also be presented in public communications media. 3. Prenatal instruction should include both theoretical and practical information about breast-feeding. 4. Attitudes and practices in prenatal clinics and in maternity wards should encourage a climate which favors breast-feeding. The staff should include nurses and other personnel who are not only favorably disposed toward breast-feeding but also knowledgeable and skilled in the art. 5. Consultation between maternity services and agencies committed to breast-feeding should be strengthened. 6. Studies should be conducted on the feasibility of breast-feeding infants at day nurseries adjacent to places of work subsequent to an appropriate leave of absence following the birth of an infant.
A comparative analysis of the factual nutrition and health indices for 1970-2001 was made involving 2950 persons aged 60-89 years, residents of Ukraine. The state of nutrition of 530 single non-working citizens of NIS states, being taken care of by a social care service, was studied. The assortment structure of food products is sharply reduced, the contents of main nutrients and biologically active substances are unbalanced. The is conditioned by poor socio-economic of the people of this age category, on the one hand and by age-related changes of the digestive system, taste sensitivity, etc., on the other. It has been shown that more than 15% of older has a protein-energetic malnutrition.