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Alkylresorcinols in Latvian and Finnish breads.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122442
Source
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Feb;64(1):117-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Laila Meija
Adile Samaletdin
Anja Koskela
Aivars Lejnieks
Vilnis Lietuvietis
Herman Adlercreutz
Author Affiliation
Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia. laila@meija.lv
Source
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Feb;64(1):117-21
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bread - analysis
Diet
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Finland
Flour - analysis
Humans
Latvia
Plant Extracts - chemistry
Resorcinols - analysis
Secale cereale - chemistry
Seeds - chemistry
Triticum - chemistry
Abstract
The alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition were determined in 9 Latvian and 11 Finnish soft breads. ARs were extracted with hot 1-propanol and quantified, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The total AR content (µg/g dry matter) varied from 560 to 840 in rye breads, from 500 to 700 in Finnish mixed rye and wheat flour breads, from 200 to 300 in Latvian mixed rye and wheat flour breads and from 25 to 30 in white wheat breads. Rye and white wheat breads in the two countries varied only slightly in AR content, but there were wide variations in AR content in mixed flour breads. The AR contents in soft breads could be indicators of bran or fibre content, but not of whole-grain flour content.
PubMed ID
22816971 View in PubMed
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Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265131
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 May 14;113(9):1453-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-14-2015
Author
W. Becker
A. Eriksson
M. Haglund
S. Wretling
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 May 14;113(9):1453-65
Date
May-14-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Dietary Carbohydrates - analysis
Dietary Fats - analysis
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Dietary Sucrose - analysis
Fatty Acids - analysis
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - analysis
Fatty Acids, Omega-6 - analysis
Food
Fructose - analysis
Glucose - analysis
Humans
Nutrition Policy
Starch - analysis
Sweden
Trans Fatty Acids - analysis
Abstract
The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25989998 View in PubMed
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Determinants of plasma alkylresorcinol concentration in Danish post-menopausal women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140604
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;65(1):94-101
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
R. Landberg
A. Kamal-Eldin
P. Aman
J. Christensen
K. Overvad
A. Tjønneland
A. Olsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agriculture Science, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden. rikard.landberg@lmv.slu.se
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;65(1):94-101
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Bread
Denmark
Diet
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Postmenopause
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Resorcinols - blood
Secale cereale - chemistry
Abstract
Alkylresorcinols (AR), a group of phenolic lipids present in the outer parts of wheat and rye grain kernels, have been suggested as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake. In this study, we investigated potential determinants of plasma AR concentration in a free-living population.
Non-fasting samples from post-menopausal women enrolled in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study (n = 360) were selected. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and the association between food items likely to contain AR and relevant non-dietary factors were studied by analysis of covariance models.
The median AR concentration was 78 nmol/l (interquartile range = 106.9 nmol/l). Intake of rye bread, identified as the main determinant, was associated with 87% higher plasma total AR concentration per 100 g of bread (95% confidence interval = 46-139%). About 8-12% of the total variation (depending on the AR homologue) in plasma AR concentration was explained by the selected dietary variables. At a nutrient level, total dietary fiber and cereal fiber were significantly associated with plasma total AR concentration (P = 0.05), but only ˜2% of the total plasma AR concentration was explained by the dietary fiber or cereal fiber intake.
In the studied population, AR plasma concentration was mainly affected by rye bread intake among investigated determinants.
PubMed ID
20859297 View in PubMed
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Dietary analysis of randomly selected meals from the Child Hunger and Education Program School Nutrition Program in Saskatchewan, Canada, suggests that nutrient target levels are being provided.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135397
Source
Nutr Res. 2011 Mar;31(3):215-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Laura A R Gougeon
Carol J Henry
Dan Ramdath
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Quebec, Canada, H9X 3V9.
Source
Nutr Res. 2011 Mar;31(3):215-22
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Diet - standards
Dietary Fats - analysis
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Energy intake
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food - standards
Food Services - standards
Humans
Male
Micronutrients - analysis
Minerals - analysis
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Policy
Saskatchewan
Schools
Vitamins - analysis
Abstract
In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already existing programs-a clear need in the scientific literature.
PubMed ID
21481715 View in PubMed
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Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature27686
Source
Lancet. 1977 Jul 30;2(8031):207-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-30-1977
Author
R. Maclennan
O M Jensen
Source
Lancet. 1977 Jul 30;2(8031):207-11
Date
Jul-30-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cellulose - analysis
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Comparative Study
Denmark
Diet Surveys
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Feces - analysis - microbiology
Female
Finland
Food Habits
Gastrointestinal Motility
Humans
Male
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Rural Population
Seasons
Steroids - analysis
Urban Population
Abstract
A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.
PubMed ID
69826 View in PubMed
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Effect of lignin content and subunit composition on digestibility in clones of timothy (Phleum pratense L.).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261862
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 2;62(26):6091-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2-2014
Author
Anna Kärkönen
Tarja Tapanila
Tapio Laakso
Mervi M Seppänen
Mika Isolahti
Maarit Hyrkäs
Perttu Virkajärvi
Pekka Saranpää
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 2;62(26):6091-9
Date
Jul-2-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Feed - analysis
Animals
Cloning, Organism
Diet - veterinary
Dietary Fiber - analysis - metabolism
Digestion
Finland
Lignin - analysis - biosynthesis - chemistry
Models, Biological
Molecular Structure
Phleum - chemistry - genetics - growth & development - metabolism
Plant Leaves - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Plant Stems - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Ruminants
Abstract
Lignin amount and subunit composition were analyzed from stems and leaf sheaths of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) clones of different in vitro digestibility. Lignin concentration in stems and leaf sheaths was higher in clones of low digestibility than those of high digestibility. No change in lignin concentration occurred in stems as digestibility decreased. Intriguingly, the lignin concentration was lower and the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was higher in stems compared to leaf sheaths at all developmental stages studied. The developmental-associated decrease in digestibility correlated with the increase in S units in lignin in stems and leaf sheaths and in the amounts of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid residues in the cell wall of stems. Yields of copper oxidation products increased in stems during maturation indicating qualitative changes in the lignin structure. This correlated strongly with the developmentally linked decrease in digestibility. The information obtained is valuable for breeding and for DNA marker development.
PubMed ID
24927469 View in PubMed
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Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI) and its associations with family and child characteristics in pre-school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268021
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov;17(11):2519-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Pipsa Kyttälä
Maijaliisa Erkkola
Susanna Lehtinen-Jacks
Marja-Leena Ovaskainen
Liisa Uusitalo
Riitta Veijola
Olli Simell
Mikael Knip
Suvi Mirjami Virtanen
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov;17(11):2519-27
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Records
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Energy intake
European Continental Ancestry Group
Family Characteristics
Fatty Acids - analysis
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - analysis
Female
Finland
Food Habits
Humans
Infant
Male
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Socioeconomic Factors
Vitamin D - analysis
Vitamin E - analysis
Abstract
The objective was to develop a Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI), to determine the relative validity of the index and to examine associations between the index and familial sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.
Cross-sectional samples of children participating in a population-based birth cohort study in Finland.
Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study cohort.
Three-day food records from 1-year-old (n 455), 3-year-old (n 471) and 6-year-old (n 713) children were completed between 2003 and 2005.
Validity of the FCHEI was assessed by studying the associations between the FCHEI and nutrient intakes of the children. Among all age groups, intakes of SFA and sugars decreased across increasing quartiles of the FCHEI while intakes of PUFA, dietary fibre, vitamin D and vitamin E increased. Among 3- and 6-year-olds, being cared for at home was associated with the lowest FCHEI quartile (diet that deviates most from the recommendations). The lowest FCHEI quartile was also associated with residence in a semi-urban area among the 3-year-olds and low maternal education and smoking during pregnancy among the 6-year-olds.
The FCHEI serves as a valid indicator of the quality of Finnish children's diet. Public health programmes aimed at improving the dietary behaviours of pre-school aged children should aim to improve the quality of food served at home. Families with history of lower parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy or non-urban place of residence may require special attention.
PubMed ID
24152429 View in PubMed
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Gluten contamination of naturally gluten-free flours and starches used by Canadians with celiac disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256559
Source
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30(12):2017-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Terence B Koerner
Chantal Cleroux
Christine Poirier
Isabelle Cantin
Sébastien La Vieille
Stephen Hayward
Sheila Dubois
Author Affiliation
a Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health Canada , Ottawa , ON , Canada.
Source
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30(12):2017-21
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Celiac Disease - diet therapy
Cereals - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Diet Surveys
Diet, Gluten-Free - adverse effects
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Fagopyrum - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Flour - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Food Contamination
Food Handling
Food Labeling
Glutens - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Internet
Nuts - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Panicum - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Seeds - adverse effects - chemistry
Soy Foods - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Starch - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Abstract
A large national investigation into the extent of gluten cross-contamination of naturally gluten-free ingredients (flours and starches) sold in Canada was performed. Samples (n = 640) were purchased from eight Canadian cities and via the internet during the period 2010-2012 and analysed for gluten contamination. The results showed that 61 of the 640 (9.5%) samples were contaminated above the Codex-recommended maximum level for gluten-free products (20 mg kg?¹) with a range of 5-7995 mg kg?¹. For the ingredients that were labelled gluten-free the contamination range (5-141 mg kg?¹) and number of samples were lower (3 of 268). This picture was consistent over time, with approximately the same percentage of samples above 20 mg kg?¹ in both the initial set and the subsequent lot. Looking at the total mean (composite) contamination for specific ingredients the largest and most consistent contaminations come from higher fibre ingredients such as soy (902 mg kg?¹), millet (272 mg kg?¹) and buckwheat (153 mg kg?¹). Of the naturally gluten-free flours and starches tested that do not contain a gluten-free label, the higher fibre ingredients would constitute the greatest probability of being contaminated with gluten above 20 mg kg?¹.
PubMed ID
24124879 View in PubMed
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A long-term metabolic study to assess the nutritional value of and immunological tolerance to two soy-protein concentrates in adult humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature62254
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Nov;50(5):997-1007
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1989
Author
W H Beer
E. Murray
S H Oh
H E Pedersen
R R Wolfe
V R Young
Author Affiliation
Clinical Research Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Nov;50(5):997-1007
Date
Nov-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amino Acids - analysis
Body Composition
Body Weight
Creatine - analysis
Dietary Carbohydrates - analysis
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Dietary Proteins - analysis
Energy Metabolism
Feces - analysis
Humans
Immune Tolerance
Male
Nitrogen - metabolism
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritive Value
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Soybean Proteins
Soybeans
Vegetable Proteins - administration & dosage - metabolism
Abstract
Seventeen healthy young adult men participated in a long-term metabolic study (11 wk) to evaluate the tolerance to and protein nutritional value of two commercially produced soy-protein concentrates. Danpro-S (nine subjects) and Danprotex-H 40 (eight subjects) (Aarhus Oliefabrik A/S, Aarhus, Denmark). Each test protein (0.8 g.kg-1.d-1) served as the sole source of dietary nitrogen. Subjects remained healthy, no problems of clinical or metabolic significance appeared, body weight remained constant, and body composition indices (lean body mass by H2(18)O dilution and creatinine excretion) and basal metabolic rate did not change. N balances fluctuated around body N equilibrium. Immunological studies confirmed the absence of any allergic responses in these subjects. It is concluded that these protein concentrates can be consumed as the sole source of dietary protein for protein nutritional maintenance and with excellent tolerance.
PubMed ID
2554716 View in PubMed
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Nonstarch polysaccharide consumption in four Scandinavian populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature27131
Source
Nutr Cancer. 1982;4(1):50-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
1982
Author
H N Englyst
S A Bingham
H S Wiggins
D A Southgate
R. Seppänen
P. Helms
V. Anderson
K C Day
R. Choolun
E. Collinson
J H Cummings
Source
Nutr Cancer. 1982;4(1):50-60
Date
1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology
Denmark
Dietary Fiber - analysis
Finland
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Polysaccharides - analysis
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Rural Health
Urban health
Abstract
Nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) intake was measured in representative samples of 30 men aged 50-59 in 2 urban and 2 rural Scandinavian populations that exhibited a 3-4 fold difference in incidence of large bowel cancer. Intake was measured by chemical analysis of complete duplicate portions of all food eaten over one day by each individual. NSP intakes showed a rural-urban gradient, with 18.4 +/- 7.8 g/day in rural Finland and 18.0 +/- 6.4 g/day in rural Denmark versus 14.5 +/- 5.4 g/day in urban Finland and 13.2 +/- 4.8 g/day in urban Denmark. NSP intakes were also calculated (using food tables) from weighed food records kept over 4 days, one of which was the day on which the duplicate collection was made. Intakes were 2-2.5 g/day higher with this method than with direct chemical analysis, mainly because published tables of values have become outdated and inaccurate as a result of improved methods for measuring NSP in food. Individual variation from day to day in NSP intake was considerable. Average NSP intake and intake of some of its component sugars were inversely related to colon cancer incidence in this geographical comparison. To show a relationship at the individual level between diet and cancer risk in a prospective study would require detailed and accurate methods for the assessment of NSP consumption.
PubMed ID
6296797 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.