The alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition were determined in 9 Latvian and 11 Finnish soft breads. ARs were extracted with hot 1-propanol and quantified, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The total AR content (µg/g dry matter) varied from 560 to 840 in rye breads, from 500 to 700 in Finnish mixed rye and wheat flour breads, from 200 to 300 in Latvian mixed rye and wheat flour breads and from 25 to 30 in white wheat breads. Rye and white wheat breads in the two countries varied only slightly in AR content, but there were wide variations in AR content in mixed flour breads. The AR contents in soft breads could be indicators of bran or fibre content, but not of whole-grain flour content.
The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.
Alkylresorcinols (AR), a group of phenolic lipids present in the outer parts of wheat and rye grain kernels, have been suggested as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake. In this study, we investigated potential determinants of plasma AR concentration in a free-living population.
Non-fasting samples from post-menopausal women enrolled in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study (n = 360) were selected. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and the association between food items likely to contain AR and relevant non-dietary factors were studied by analysis of covariance models.
The median AR concentration was 78 nmol/l (interquartile range = 106.9 nmol/l). Intake of rye bread, identified as the main determinant, was associated with 87% higher plasma total AR concentration per 100 g of bread (95% confidence interval = 46-139%). About 8-12% of the total variation (depending on the AR homologue) in plasma AR concentration was explained by the selected dietary variables. At a nutrient level, total dietary fiber and cereal fiber were significantly associated with plasma total AR concentration (P = 0.05), but only ˜2% of the total plasma AR concentration was explained by the dietary fiber or cereal fiber intake.
In the studied population, AR plasma concentration was mainly affected by rye bread intake among investigated determinants.
In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already existing programs-a clear need in the scientific literature.
A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.
Lignin amount and subunit composition were analyzed from stems and leaf sheaths of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) clones of different in vitro digestibility. Lignin concentration in stems and leaf sheaths was higher in clones of low digestibility than those of high digestibility. No change in lignin concentration occurred in stems as digestibility decreased. Intriguingly, the lignin concentration was lower and the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was higher in stems compared to leaf sheaths at all developmental stages studied. The developmental-associated decrease in digestibility correlated with the increase in S units in lignin in stems and leaf sheaths and in the amounts of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid residues in the cell wall of stems. Yields of copper oxidation products increased in stems during maturation indicating qualitative changes in the lignin structure. This correlated strongly with the developmentally linked decrease in digestibility. The information obtained is valuable for breeding and for DNA marker development.
The objective was to develop a Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI), to determine the relative validity of the index and to examine associations between the index and familial sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.
Cross-sectional samples of children participating in a population-based birth cohort study in Finland.
Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study cohort.
Three-day food records from 1-year-old (n 455), 3-year-old (n 471) and 6-year-old (n 713) children were completed between 2003 and 2005.
Validity of the FCHEI was assessed by studying the associations between the FCHEI and nutrient intakes of the children. Among all age groups, intakes of SFA and sugars decreased across increasing quartiles of the FCHEI while intakes of PUFA, dietary fibre, vitamin D and vitamin E increased. Among 3- and 6-year-olds, being cared for at home was associated with the lowest FCHEI quartile (diet that deviates most from the recommendations). The lowest FCHEI quartile was also associated with residence in a semi-urban area among the 3-year-olds and low maternal education and smoking during pregnancy among the 6-year-olds.
The FCHEI serves as a valid indicator of the quality of Finnish children's diet. Public health programmes aimed at improving the dietary behaviours of pre-school aged children should aim to improve the quality of food served at home. Families with history of lower parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy or non-urban place of residence may require special attention.
A large national investigation into the extent of gluten cross-contamination of naturally gluten-free ingredients (flours and starches) sold in Canada was performed. Samples (n = 640) were purchased from eight Canadian cities and via the internet during the period 2010-2012 and analysed for gluten contamination. The results showed that 61 of the 640 (9.5%) samples were contaminated above the Codex-recommended maximum level for gluten-free products (20 mg kg?¹) with a range of 5-7995 mg kg?¹. For the ingredients that were labelled gluten-free the contamination range (5-141 mg kg?¹) and number of samples were lower (3 of 268). This picture was consistent over time, with approximately the same percentage of samples above 20 mg kg?¹ in both the initial set and the subsequent lot. Looking at the total mean (composite) contamination for specific ingredients the largest and most consistent contaminations come from higher fibre ingredients such as soy (902 mg kg?¹), millet (272 mg kg?¹) and buckwheat (153 mg kg?¹). Of the naturally gluten-free flours and starches tested that do not contain a gluten-free label, the higher fibre ingredients would constitute the greatest probability of being contaminated with gluten above 20 mg kg?¹.
Seventeen healthy young adult men participated in a long-term metabolic study (11 wk) to evaluate the tolerance to and protein nutritional value of two commercially produced soy-protein concentrates. Danpro-S (nine subjects) and Danprotex-H 40 (eight subjects) (Aarhus Oliefabrik A/S, Aarhus, Denmark). Each test protein (0.8 g.kg-1.d-1) served as the sole source of dietary nitrogen. Subjects remained healthy, no problems of clinical or metabolic significance appeared, body weight remained constant, and body composition indices (lean body mass by H2(18)O dilution and creatinine excretion) and basal metabolic rate did not change. N balances fluctuated around body N equilibrium. Immunological studies confirmed the absence of any allergic responses in these subjects. It is concluded that these protein concentrates can be consumed as the sole source of dietary protein for protein nutritional maintenance and with excellent tolerance.
Nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) intake was measured in representative samples of 30 men aged 50-59 in 2 urban and 2 rural Scandinavian populations that exhibited a 3-4 fold difference in incidence of large bowel cancer. Intake was measured by chemical analysis of complete duplicate portions of all food eaten over one day by each individual. NSP intakes showed a rural-urban gradient, with 18.4 +/- 7.8 g/day in rural Finland and 18.0 +/- 6.4 g/day in rural Denmark versus 14.5 +/- 5.4 g/day in urban Finland and 13.2 +/- 4.8 g/day in urban Denmark. NSP intakes were also calculated (using food tables) from weighed food records kept over 4 days, one of which was the day on which the duplicate collection was made. Intakes were 2-2.5 g/day higher with this method than with direct chemical analysis, mainly because published tables of values have become outdated and inaccurate as a result of improved methods for measuring NSP in food. Individual variation from day to day in NSP intake was considerable. Average NSP intake and intake of some of its component sugars were inversely related to colon cancer incidence in this geographical comparison. To show a relationship at the individual level between diet and cancer risk in a prospective study would require detailed and accurate methods for the assessment of NSP consumption.