Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.
High cereal fibre intake is associated with reduced risk for type 2 diabetes, but wheat fibre had little or no effect on glycaemic control or oral glucose tolerance in clinical trials lasting 4-12 weeks. To explain this discrepancy, we hypothesised that colonic adaptation to increased wheat fibre intake takes many months but eventually results in increased SCFA production and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the time-course of the effects of increased wheat fibre intake on plasma acetate, butyrate and GLP-1 concentrations in hyperinsulinaemic human subjects over 1 year. Subjects with fasting plasma insulin >or= 40 pmol/l were randomly assigned by computer to receive either a high-wheat fibre cereal (fibre group; 24 g fibre/d; twenty assigned; six dropped out, fourteen included) or a low-fibre cereal (control group; twenty assigned; six dropped-out, fourteen included) daily for 1 year. Acetate, butyrate and GLP-1 were measured during 8 h metabolic profiles performed every 3 months. There were no differences in body weight in the fibre group compared with the control group. After 9 months baseline-adjusted mean 8 h acetate and butyrate concentrations were higher on the high-fibre than the control cereal (P
Current dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention suggest dietary patterns that promote achieving healthy weight, emphasize vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, fish and nuts, substituting mono-unsaturated fats for saturated fats and restricting dietary sodium to less than 2300 mg/day. However, trends in nutrient intake and food consumption patterns suggest that the need for improvement in the dietary patterns of Canadians is clear. Influencing eating behaviour requires more than addressing nutrition knowledge and perceptions of healthy eating - it requires tackling the context within which individuals make choices. A comprehensive approach to improving nutrition includes traditional downstream strategies such as counselling to improve knowledge and skills; midstream strategies such as using the media to change social norms; and upstream strategies such as creating supportive environments through public policy including regulatory measures. While the evidence base for more upstream strategies continues to grow, key examples of comprehensive approaches to population change provide a call to action.
Cites: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11 Suppl 9:S755-812656679
Despite its health implications, the fibre intake of Irish children is unknown. The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey indicated that 77% of Irish adults do not consume adequate fibre and surveys of children and adolescents in Canada and Sweden have confirmed suboptimal fibre intake in these groups. This study undertook to assess fibre intake and the incidence of constipation in Irish children aged 5-8 years. Children admitted to hospital with an acute self-limiting medical illness were included in the study. Three day food diaries were recorded on discharge from hospital. The presence of constipation was ascertained Seventy six per cent of 135 children s diets did not contain adequate fibre. The incidence of constipation was 13.6% in those with inadequate fibre intake as opposed to 6% in those with adequate fibre intake. Poor dietary fibre needs to be addressed in the context of health promotion and disease prevention involving parents, health care professionals and government public policy.
To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults.
Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored.
Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years.
Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively.
The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.
The urinary alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid (DHPPA), could potentially serve as biomarkers for intake of whole-grain (WG) wheat and rye. Excretion of AR metabolites is largely dependent on the intake of AR but may also be influenced by other factors. This study aimed to investigate the validity of free and conjugated AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG intake of wheat and rye and to identify potential determinants of AR metabolites in urine. We quantified free aglycones and conjugates of AR metabolites in 24-h urine collections from 52 free-living Swedish adults and calculated correlation coefficients between urinary AR metabolite excretion and self-reported WG intake. We used partial least-squares regression to identify possible determinants of urinary AR metabolites. Approximately 50% of urinary AR metabolites were found as conjugates. Excretions of individually quantified free and conjugated AR metabolites and their sums were correlated to self-reported intake of WG rye and wheat (r = 0.50-0.68; P
Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2-3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (r(s) 0·31-0·52, P
The alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition were determined in 9 Latvian and 11 Finnish soft breads. ARs were extracted with hot 1-propanol and quantified, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The total AR content (µg/g dry matter) varied from 560 to 840 in rye breads, from 500 to 700 in Finnish mixed rye and wheat flour breads, from 200 to 300 in Latvian mixed rye and wheat flour breads and from 25 to 30 in white wheat breads. Rye and white wheat breads in the two countries varied only slightly in AR content, but there were wide variations in AR content in mixed flour breads. The AR contents in soft breads could be indicators of bran or fibre content, but not of whole-grain flour content.