AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. RESULTS: Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r = -0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r = -0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r = -0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r = -0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r = -0.24; p
Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50-64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18:1t), 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid (18:1 ?11t) and rumenic acid (18:2 ?9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18:1t was 1.52% (90% central range 0.98, 2.19) in men and 1.47% (1.01, 2.19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18:1t, 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue are not associated with subsequent changes in weight or WC within the exposure range observed in this population.
The influence of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk was evaluated in a population-based case-control study, including 1,486 cases diagnosed over a one-year (1983-84) period in Denmark. Cases were identified from the files of the nationwide clinical trial of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and the Danish Cancer Registry. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of 1,336 women from the general population. Data on risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. The association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk varied with age and dietary fat intake. Among women aged 50-59 years, with a fat intake in the lowest quartile, the risk of breast cancer increased with increasing consumption of alcohol. A consumption of 24 g or more per day was associated with an 18-fold increased risk compared with abstainers. For women in other age groups, alcohol consumption had no significant association with breast cancer risk.
Dietary arachidonic acid, an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), might be involved in the etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a prospective cohort study to determine whether high levels of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue samples (which reflects dietary intake) are associated with UC.
We analyzed data collected from 57,053 men and women in the EPIC-Denmark Prospective Cohort Study from 1993 to 1997. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were collected from gluteal regions at the beginning of the study, the cohort was monitored over subsequent years, and participants who developed UC were identified. A subcohort of 2510 randomly selected participants were used as controls. Concentrations of arachidonic acid were measured in adipose tissue samples. In the analysis, arachidonic acid levels were divided into quartiles; relative risks (RR) were calculated and adjusted for smoking, use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levels of n-3 PUFAs.
A total of 34 subjects (56% men) developed incident UC at a median age of 58.8 years (range, 50.0-69.0 years). Those in the highest quartile for arachidonic acid concentrations in adipose tissue had an RR for UC of 4.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-11.04); a trend per 0.1% increase in arachidonic acid of 1.77 in RR was observed (95% CI: 1.38-2.27). The fraction attributed the highest levels of arachidonic acid was 40.3%.
Individuals with the highest relative concentrations of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue have a significantly greater risk of developing UC. Dietary modifications might therefore prevent UC or reduce disease symptoms.
To examine whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes.
We recruited 664 participants aged between 18 and 55 years. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Body mass index (BMI), weight and waist girth were recorded using standard procedures. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by electrical bioimpedance. Obesity was defined as having a BMI> or =30 kg m(-2) and a positive FHO (FHO+) as having at least one obese first-degree relative.
Two dietary patterns were identified; Western and Prudent. The Western pattern was mainly characterized by a higher consumption of refined grains, French fries, red meats, condiments, processed meats and regular soft drinks whereas the Prudent pattern was mainly characterized by a higher consumption of non-hydrogenated fat, vegetables, eggs and fish and seafood. Subjects in the top tertile of the Western pattern had higher BMI, weight, waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass than those in the lower tertile. In contrast, subjects in the top tertile of the Prudent pattern had lower BMI, weight, waist girth, fat mass, HDL-cholesterol levels, and lower triglyceride levels than those in the lowest tertile. Individuals in the upper tertile of the Western pattern were more likely to be obese (obesity was defined as having a BMI> or =30 kg m(-2)) (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.16-2.87) whereas those in the upper tertile of the Prudent pattern were less likely to be obese (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.96). These latter significant associations were only observed among those with FHO+. No such association was observed among FHO- individuals.
Individuals having a high score of Western pattern were more likely to be obese and those having a high score of the Prudent pattern were less likely to be obese, and this is particularly among individuals with an FHO+.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between asthma and the intake of food with pro-oxidant or antioxidant activity (fat, alcohol, iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C), and to analyse whether any such association is specific to asthma or is found in airflow limitation in general. This study deals with 478 men, who were randomly selected from all the men born in Malmö in 1914. They were investigated using spirometry and their medical, occupational and dietary history was recorded in 1982-1983, at the age of 68 yrs, as part of the cohort study "Men born in 1914". Asthma was defined as a past or present physician's or nurse's diagnosis of asthma and airflow limitation was defined as a forced expiratory volume in one second/vital capacity ratio (FEV1/VC) of less than 70%. The relative risk of having asthma or airflow limitation as related to dietary intake at the age of 68 yrs was analysed after adjustments for smoking history and body mass index. Asthma was reported in 21 men and was not related to smoking history. Asthma was more common in men with a high fat intake (relative risk of asthma 1.74 for a 10% increase in fat intake, 95% confidence interval for the relative risk 1.13-2.68). The consumption of alcohol was higher for current smokers than ex-smokers and nonsmokers, and the intake of carbohydrates, vitamin C and iron was lower. Airflow limitation without asthma was present in 156 men and was related to smoking but not to dietary intake. Men with asthma had a significantly higher intake of fat than men without asthma. This difference appeared to be specific to asthma and was not found in airflow limitation in general.
The hypothesis that the presence of unnatural trans and cis isomers of unsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet and in human mothers milk could be responsible for initiating atherosclerosis in utero or in infants is proposed. It is suggested that the key etiological factor involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques could be uncontrolled division of smooth muscle cells of the intima resulting from the intracellular excess of linoleic acid and deficiency of its metabolites gamma-linolenic acid and dihomogamma-linolenic acid. This imbalance is brought about by competitive inhibition of the enzyme delta-6-desaturase by unnatural trans and cis unsaturated fatty acids. Delta-6-desaturase is the enzyme responsible for converting linoleic acid to dihomogamma-linolenic acid. The cellular presence of unnatural trans and cis isomers of unsaturated fatty acids would therefore enhance increased levels of linoleic acid and deficiency of its metabolites gamma-linolenic acid and dihomogamma-linolenic acid. It is proposed that prophylaxis against the effects of delta-6-desaturase inhibition could be achieved by the adoption of an Eskimo-like diet containing the essential fatty acid metabolites gamma-linolenic acid and/or dihomogamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid per se in high concentrations.
BACKGROUND: High intakes of saturated fat have been associated with cardiovascular disease, and milk fat is rich in saturated fat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the serum milk fat biomarkers pentadecanoic acid (15:0), heptadecanoic acid (17:0), and their sum (15:0+17:0) and a first myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: The study design was a prospective case-control study nested within a large population-based cohort in Sweden. Included in the study were 444 cases (307 men) and 556 controls (308 men) matched on sex, age, date of examination, and geographic region. Clinical, anthropometric, biomarker fatty acid, physical activity, and dietary data were collected. The odds of a first MI were investigated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: In women, proportions of milk fat biomarkers in plasma phospholipids were significantly higher (P
To evaluate body fatness in subjects complying with common public health guidelines for lipid and alcohol intake as well as physical activity participation.
A sample of 358 male subjects who participated in phase 1 of the Quebec Family Study.
The association between adiposity, lipid and alcohol intake and physical activity participation was analyzed in the overall sample. A comparison of body fatness in individuals adhering or not to public health recommendations was also performed.
Significant positive correlations were observed between the percentage of dietary energy as lipid and adiposity indicators. Accordingly, subjects classified as low-fat consumers displayed significantly lower levels of fat mass and subcutaneous adiposity compared to high-fat consumers. When subjects reporting low lipid and alcohol intake and regular participation in vigorous physical activities were compared to those exhibiting opposite behaviors, the between-group difference in subcutaneous adiposity was doubled and this was essentially explained by an increase in the difference for truncal subcutaneous adiposity.
These results indicate that the adherence to a lifestyle characterized by high-fat and alcohol intake as well as sedentariness promotes fat gain, particularly in the trunk area.