Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is linked to weight gain and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in children, but whether these associations are modified by excess weight and glucose tolerance status in children is not known.
The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between SSB intake and MetS components among children above and below the 85th body mass index (BMI) percentile and those with and without impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
Data were from the QUébec Adiposity and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth study (2005-2008). Caucasian children aged 8-10 years (n?=?632) were recruited from 1040 primary schools in Québec, Canada. SSB consumption was assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, body fat mass by dual-energy absorptiometry, physical activity by 7-d accelerometer. Multivariate linear regressions were used, with age, sex, fat mass index and physical activity as covariates, including waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), concentrations of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as outcome variables.
Among overweight children, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 0.1-unit higher HOMA-IR (P?=?0.009) and a 1.1-mm?Hg higher SBP (P?=?0.001). In children with IGT, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 1.4-mm?Hg higher SBP and a 4.0-cm higher WC (P?
In low-fluoride areas, infant feeding practices have been implicated in the aetiology of extensive caries found in young Asian children. The purpose of this study was to compare the findings in low-fluoride Leeds, UK with fluoridated Edmonton, in Canada. A multilingual interpreter interviewed Asian parents, and their children aged 2 to 5 years were then given a dental examination. From the initial sample contacted by post, a 72 per cent response rate was achieved. Of the 72 parents interviewed, three-quarters reported that the child was initially breast fed, 11 for over 12 months. The majority of children continued bottle feeding beyond 24 months of age, and one-third drank sweetened milk. Two-thirds of the sample were caries free. The continued use of a feeding bottle per se was not associated with caries experience, but caries was more likely to occur if sugar, honey or cereal were added to the drink. A positive association was found between caries experience and sustained breast feeding beyond 12 months of age. Social variables, including father's occupation and mother's ability to speak English were not related to caries experience. The results confirm that, as in the UK, South Asian parents in Canada provide feeding bottles for their children's drinks well beyond infancy. Nevertheless, in a fluoridated city, bottle-feeding practices were not associated with caries experience unless drinks were sweetened. However, prolonged breast feeding was found to be harmful to dental health. The role of fluoride ingestion in relation to these feeding practices is discussed.
In some previous studies direct associations between intake of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. The majority of these studies were, however, conducted in the USA and it is uncertain if the results are applicable to non-US countries.
To assess the association between sweet drink intake at age 6 and 9 years and the subsequent 3- to 7-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and sum of four skin-folds (S4SF).
Information on sweet drink intake (7 days food record) and physical activity (accelerometer) was obtained at age 6 years (n?=?366) [Correction made here after initial online publication.] and 9 years (n?=?269). Weight, height and S4SF were measured at age 6, 9 and 13 years. Additional information on socio-economic status, maternal BMI and pubertal status was obtained.
No associations were observed between sweet drink intake at age 6 years and change in BMI or logS4SF from age 6 to 9 years or 6 to 13 years. Also, no associations were observed between change in sweet drink intake from age 6 to 9 years and subsequent change in BMI or logS4SF from age 9 to 13 years. A weak direct association was observed between sweet drink intake at age 9 years and change in logS4SF from age 9 to 13 years (per 100 g ~ 3.38 fl oz) (ß: 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.001 to 0.029, P?=?0.06), while no association was seen for BMI. In supplementary analyses a similar association was observed for soft drinks (ß: 0.087, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.126, P?=?0.001) but only in the intervention group.
We observed associations between intake of sweet drinks and soft drinks and change in skin-fold thickness in a group of Danish children. However, as the associations did not remain significant when multiple testing was considered or was only significant among children from the intervention group, the results do not confirm or refute the direct association reported in previous studies.
The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of EFD lesions in relation to some background factors in Finnish and Soviet children. Children aged 7, 9 and 12 years (n = 1187) were examined clinically in Helsinki, Kuopio (Finland), Moscow and Leningrad (USSR). A questionnaire sent to the parents was used to collect data on toothbrushing frequency, use of sweets, cakes, soft drinks, sugar-sweetened tea/coffee and mother's education. In addition to bivariate analysis, log-linear regression models were used for comparing the simultaneous association in two ethnic groups. In general, the Finnish children had more EFD lesions than the Soviet children did. Among the Finns no consistent associations were found between the number of EFD lesions and the use of different sugar products or differences in toothbrushing habits. The number of EFD lesions decreased consistently according to mother's education with the Finnish children, but not with the Soviet children. The final multivariate model for Finnish children included age, toothbrushing frequency, place of residence (Kuopio) and use of soft drinks. The respective model for the Soviet children included age and place of residence (Leningrad). Evidently, the demineralization process or tooth resistance differs in these two ethnic groups.
The most children caries morbidity was correlated with the intensity of carbohydrates uptake and was not directly connected with the fluorine content in the water. Author concluded, that the rational nourishment is significant in the caries prophylaxis.
Two case-control studies of diet and colorectal cancer were conducted in Moscow and Khabarovsk. The Moscow study comprised 100 cases of colorectal cancer and 100 neighbourhood controls. The Khabarovsk study consisted of 117 cases of colorectal cancer and 117 population controls. A history of the usual dietary intake one year prior to interview was taken using a food frequency questionnaire. Effects were adjusted in analysis for energy intake and education. Significantly reduced risks were observed with high intakes of cellulose (P = 0.001), beta-carotene (P = 0.002), vitamin C (P = 0.007), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P = 0.004), cholesterol (P = 0.04), and with a high ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P = 0.002). Significant increases in risk were observed in association with high ratios of intakes of protein to cellulose (P = 0.002) and of fat to cellulose (P = 0.008). High intake of total fat was associated with non-significant decrease in the risk (P = 0.12), while high intake of SFA resulted in statistically non-significant increase in risk (P = 0.40). Significant reductions in risk were associated with high frequencies of consumption of vegetables (P = 0.001) and fruit (P = 0.009). There were results suggestive of a decreased risk with a high frequency of milk consumption (P = 0.06) and an increased risk in association with a ratio of meat to vegetable frequencies (P = 0.09). After adjustment among factors effecting risk of colorectal cancer statistically significant increase in the risk was seen only for protein/cellulose ratio and significant protective effect for PUFA/SFA ratio, beta-carotene and vegetable consumption.
OBJECTIVE--To study different nutrients and food additives as risk factors for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in childhood. DESIGN--Prospective case-control study. Parents of the children being studied were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the children's frequency of consumption of various foods. Parents of children with diabetes were asked about the period before onset of the disease. SETTING--Population based study throughout Sweden. SUBJECTS--339 Children aged 0-14 who had recently developed insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and 528 control children matched for age, sex, and county of residence who were traced through the official Swedish population register. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Foods were classified according to their content of protein, fat, carbohydrates, monosaccharides or disaccharides, nitrosamines, nitrates or nitrites, vitamin C, and fibres. The frequency of intake was categorised as high, medium, and low and the relative risk for developing insulin dependent diabetes was estimated for the three frequencies of intake and calculated as odds ratios. RESULTS--Significant linear trends for dose response in odds ratios by frequency of intake were shown for solid foods containing high amounts of protein (odds ratio for low frequency of intake 1.0; medium 2.3; and high 5.5), and nitrosamines (1.0; 1.7; 2.6) and significant but non-linear trends were found for carbohydrates (1.0; 1.3; 4.4) and nitrates or nitrites (1.0; 0.8; 2.4). The significant trends were not affected when the results were standardised for possible confounders. No significant increases in odds ratios were found for protein, monosaccharides and disaccharides, vitamin C, and fibres. CONCLUSION--Nutrients and food additives such as protein, carbohydrate, and nitrosamine compounds may influence the risk of developing insulin dependent diabetes in childhood and significant trends in odds ratios indicate a causal relation.