The purpose of the present study was to establish whether the number of intact teeth in Helsinki schoolchildren aged 7-13 years was rationally correlated with the wartime reduction in sugar consumption and, later, with dental health education programs in Finland. The period covered is 44 years. The results show that dental health education is effective in caries prevention and that enforced programs can lead to an improvement similar to that seen during the war.
To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults.
Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored.
Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years.
Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively.
The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.
To study the impact of different adherence levels to the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol and the effect of various ERAS elements on outcomes following major surgery.
Single-center prospective cohort study before and after reinforcement of an ERAS protocol. Comparisons were made both between and across periods using multivariate logistic regression. All clinical data (114 variables) were prospectively recorded.
Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Nine hundred fifty-three consecutive patients with colorectal cancer: 464 patients treated in 2002 to 2004 and 489 in 2005 to 2007.
The association between improved adherence to the ERAS protocol and the incidence of postoperative symptoms, complications, and length of stay following major colorectal cancer surgery was analyzed.
Following an overall increase in preoperative and perioperative adherence to the ERAS protocol from 43.3% in 2002 to 2004 to 70.6% in 2005 to 2007, both postoperative complications (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.98) and symptoms (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.70) declined significantly. Restriction of intravenous fluid and use of a preoperative carbohydrate drink were major independent predictors. Across periods, the proportion of adverse postoperative outcomes (30-day morbidity, symptoms, and readmissions) was significantly reduced with increasing adherence to the ERAS protocol (>70%, >80%, and >90%) compared with low ERAS adherence (
This study was undertaken to assess how low-carbohydrate-density diets below the acceptable macronutrient distribution range relate to food and micronutrient intake and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. The multistage stratified cluster design in the 1990 Ontario Health Survey was used. There were 5,194 subjects, 12 to 18 years of age, in sampled households. Dietary data were collected via a food frequency questionnaire. Low-carbohydrate-density diets were consumed by 27.6% of males and 24.1% of females. Low-carbohydrate-density diets were related (P
The effect of dietary supplements of xylitol, sorbitol and glucose on bone composition was studied in rats. The supplementation, expressed as a % of the dry diet, was gradually increased up to 20% over 3 weeks and continued for 5 weeks. The control group was fed a stock diet only. Each group consisted of nine rats aged 12 weeks at the beginning of the experiment. Ca, Mg, P, CO3 and citrate were analysed from the femur and Ca and citrate also from the serum and urine. The results showed that xylitol supplementation significantly increased the concentrations of Ca and citrate in bone (P less than 0.001) and sorbitol that of Ca only, whereas glucose slightly reduced both CO3 and citrate. The citrate concentration was found to correlate significantly with Ca and P (P less than 0.001), and also with Mg (P less than 0.002). Both xylitol and sorbitol increased serum Ca and the urinary excretion of Ca and citrate. In conclusion, high xylitol or sorbitol supplementation affects Ca and citrate metabolism. The results suggest a connection between citrate and Ca in bone.
Nutrition recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are partly guided by the postprandial responses elicited by diets varying in carbohydrate (CHO). We aimed to explore whether long-term changes in postprandial responses on low-glycemic-index (GI) or low-CHO diets were due to acute or chronic effects in T2DM.
Subjects with diet-alone-treated T2DM were randomly assigned to high-CHO/high-GI (H), high-CHO/low-GI (L), or low-CHO/high-monounsaturated-fat (M) diets for 12-months. At week-0 (Baseline) postprandial responses after H-meals (55% CHO, GI = 61) were measured from 0800 h to 1600 h. After 12 mo subjects were randomly assigned to H-meals or study diet meals (L, 57% CHO, GI = 50; M, 44% CHO, GI = 61). This yielded 5 groups: H diet with H-meals (HH, n = 34); L diet with H- (LH, n = 17) or L-meals (LL, n = 16); and M diet with H- (MH, n = 18) or M meals (MM, n = 19). Postprandial glucose fluctuations were lower in LL than all other groups (p