According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, total beverage consumption among adults declined steadily with age. This reflects drops in the percentage of adults consuming most beverages and in the amounts consumed. While water was the beverage consumed most frequently and in the greatest quantity by adults, for many of them, coffee ranked second. Largely as a result of drinking coffee, more than 20% of men and 15% of women aged 31 to 70 exceeded the recommended maximum of 400 milligrams of caffeine per day. About 20% of men aged 19 to 70 consumed more than two alcoholic drinks a day. Owing to declines in the consumption of soft drinks and alcohol, the contribution of beverages to adults' total calorie intake falls at older ages. Regardless of age, men were generally more likely than women to report drinking most beverages, and those who did, drank more. There were, however, a few exceptions, with higher percentages of women than men reporting that they drank water and tea.
According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition, children and teens get about one-fifth of their daily calories from beverages. As they get older, boys and girls drink less milk and fruit juice, and more soft drinks and fruit drinks. By ages 14 to 18, boys' average daily consumption of soft drinks matches their consumption of milk, and exceeds their consumption of fruit juice and fruit drinks. Beverage consumption by children and teens varies little by province, except in Newfoundland and Labrador where it tends to be comparatively high, and in British Columbia where it tends to be low.
OBJECTIVES: We assessed changes in cardiovascular disease-related health outcomes and risk factors among American Indians and Alaska Natives by age and gender. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 1995 to 1996 and the 2005 to 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The respondents were 2548 American Indian and Alaska Native women and men aged 18 years or older in 1995-1996 and 11 104 women and men in 2005-2006. We analyzed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, sedentary behavior, and low vegetable or fruit intake. RESULTS: From 1995-1996 to 2005-2006, the adjusted prevalence of diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives increased by 26.9%, from 6.7% to 8.5%, and obesity increased by 25.3%, from 24.9% to 31.2%. Hypertension increased by 5%, from 28.1% to 29.5%. Multiple logistic models showed no meaningful changes in smoking, sedentary behavior, or intake of fruits or vegetables. In 2005-2006, 79% of the population had 1 or more of the 6 risk factors, and 46% had 2 or more. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension and their associated risk factors should be studied further among urban, rural, and reservation American Indian and Alaska Native populations, and effective primary and secondary prevention efforts are critical.
The study assesses the association of diet and vitamin or mineral supplementation with risk of proximal or distal colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1723 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed colon cancer cases and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurement included information on socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol use, diet and vitamin or mineral supplementation. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Linear regression was used to examine that dietary factors affect body mass index. The strongest positive associations between colon cancer risk and increasing total fat intake were observed for proximal colon cancer in men and for distal colon cancer in both men and women. Increased consumption of vegetables, fruit and whole-grain products did not reduce the risk of colon cancer. A modest reduction in distal colon cancer risk was noted in women who consumed yellow-orange vegetables. Significant positive associations were observed between proximal colon cancer risk in men and consumption of red meat and dairy products, and between distal colon cancer risk in women and total intake of meat and processed meat. We also saw strong associations between bacon intake and both subsites of colon cancer in women. When men were compared with women directly by subsite however, the results did not show a corresponding association. A significantly reduced risk of distal colon cancer was noted in women only with increasing intake of dairy products and of milk. Among men and women taking vitamin and mineral supplements for more than 5 years, significant inverse associations with colon cancer were most pronounced among women with distal colon cancer. These findings suggest that dietary risk factors for proximal colon cancer may differ from those for distal colon cancer.
From epidemiologic studies in several countries, passive smoking has been associated with increased risk for lung cancer, respiratory diseases, and coronary heart disease. Since the relative risks derived from those studies are weak, i.e. relative risk less than two, we investigated whether poorer diets and less healthy lifestyles might act as confounders and be correlated with having a smoking husband on a cross-cultural basis. Characteristics of never-smoked wives with or without smoking husbands were compared between 530 women from Hong Kong, 13,047 from Japan, 87 from Sweden, and 144 from the U.S. In all four sites, wives with smoking husbands generally ate less healthy diets. They had a tendency to eat more fried food but less fruit than wives with nonsmoking husbands. Other healthy traits, e.g. avoiding obesity, dietary cholesterol and alcohol, or taking vitamins and participating in preventive screening were also less prevalent among wives with smoking husbands. These patterns suggest that never-smoked wives with smoking husbands tend to share the same less healthy dietary traits characteristic of smokers, and to have dietary habits associated with increased risk for lung cancer and heart disease in their societies. These results emphasize the need to take into account the potential confounding effects of diet and lifestyle in studies evaluating the health effects of passive smoking, especially since it is known that the current prevalence rates of smoking among men is indirectly associated with social class and education in affluent urban societies.
Over 2 million Canadians are known to have diabetes. In addition to the economic burden placed on the healthcare system, the human cost associated with diabetes poses a heavy burden on those living with diabetes. The literature shows that apparent differences exist in diabetes complications and diabetes management between men and women. How self-care management and utilization of health services differ by sex is not clearly understood.The purpose of this study was to explore sex differences in diabetes self-care and medical management in the Canadian population, using a nationally representative sample.
Data collected from the cross-sectional, population-based Canadian Community Health Survey (2007-2008) were used in these analyses. A bootstrap variance estimation method and bootstrap weights provided by Statistics Canada were used to calculate 95% confidence intervals. Bivariate analyses identified variables of interest between females and males that were used in subsequent multivariate analyses.
A total of 131,959 respondents were surveyed for the years of 2007 and 2008, inclusive. Fully adjusted multinomial and logistic regression analyses revealed sex differences for those living with diabetes. Compared to men with diabetes, women were more likely to be in the lowest income quintiles than the highest (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.6) and were more likely not to have a job in the previous week (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.4). Women were also more likely to avoid foods with fats or high calories (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0 and OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.0, respectively), to be concerned about heart disease (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), and to be non-smokers (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.0). However, despite their increased concern, women checked their blood-glucose less frequently on a daily basis than men (µwomen = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.7-1.8; µmen = 3.1, 95% CI: 2.9-3.2). Women were more likely to have an anxiety disorder (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.2) and a mood disorder (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8-3.1), and more likely to be physically inactive (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8).
Our findings underscore the importance of addressing sex differences which may interfere with diabetes self-care. In women, addressing socioeconomic and psychological barriers, as well as limitations to active living are important; in men, the benefit of more effective nutrition therapy and smoking cessation interventions are suggested. The results for this study highlight the need to further investigate and eliminate disparities between the sexes in order to optimize health outcomes among Canadians with diabetes.
The higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is considered to be an indicator of healthy eating and the protective effects of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption for noncommunicable diseases have been investigated extensively. The present study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable intake (FVI), health behaviours and socio-demographic factors among adult Canadians.
This analysis was based on the information from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 3.1. Daily intake of fruit and vegetables from a total number of 15,512 apparently healthy individuals, aged 18-64 years, were assessed using a structured questionnaire, which included 20 questions on the frequency of consumption of different types of fruit and vegetables. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between FVI and some socio-economic factors and lifestyle behaviour among adult Canadians.
In total 77% of Canadian adults consumed fruit and vegetables less than five times per day. Females were more likely to consume more fruit [odds ratio (OR) 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-2.4], vegetables (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.65-2.29) and FV (OR 2.52; 95% CI 2.20-2.90) than males. Single/never married individuals, individuals with higher levels of education, never smokers, former drinkers and older people reported more consumption of fruit and vegetables than others.
The results obtained in the present study indicate an association between FVI and some socio-economic and healthy lifestyle behaviours, and that a substantial gap exists between the recommended level and the actual intake of the FV among the Canadian population. Because a higher intake of FV improves public health, it is imperative to tailor nutrition education at the individual and community levels in Canadian populations.
The present study aimed to explore a longitudinal relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and two health-related outcomes (i.e., self-rated health and mental health) in early adulthood in the community.
Data from a longitudinal cohort of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS) were used. Participants of the 2002/03 survey aged 15-17 years old were followed and surveyed in 2008/09. The number of the sample used in the statistical analyses was 250 (n=250). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of fruit and vegetable consumption in the adolescence (classified into tertiles) with non-excellent (or poor) self-rated health and poor mental health (defined as having a K6 score of 5+) at follow-up.
After adjusting for sex, age, the highest level of education in household, and the other covariates, participants who consumed fruits and vegetables most frequently at baseline had a significantly smaller odds ratio for being non-excellent self-rated health (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11, 0.83). No significant associations were found between fruit and vegetable consumption at baseline and poor mental health at follow-up in any model (p>0.05).
The results of this longitudinal study suggest that high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence has a beneficial influence on self-rated health in the early adulthood.
Analysis of over 250,000 respondents from four of the largest epidemiological surveys in North America indicates that major health behaviors are largely unrelated to one another. On average, the percentage of shared variance among smoking, exercise, diet and alcohol consumption is approximately 1%. While many of these relationships are statistically significant, suggesting that the associations are nonzero in the population, they represent minute effect sizes. The weak associations among these behaviors are unlikely to be due to incorrect functional form of the relationship, measurement error, or biases in responding. The findings have implications for health behavior theories and interventions predicated on the notion that the health conscious individual attempts to improve his or her health by engaging in more than one of these behaviors at a time.
To assess the impact of a 3 year (2006-2009) community-based intervention for obesity and chronic disease prevention in four diverse "Healthy Alberta Communities" (HAC).
Targeted intervention development incorporated the ANGELO conceptual framework to help community stakeholders identify environmental determinants of obesity amenable to intervention. Several inter-related initiatives were implemented. To evaluate, we surveyed separate samples of adults in HAC communities before and after the interventions and compared responses to identical survey questions asked of adults living in Alberta in two waves of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS).
The HAC sample included 4761 (2006) and 4733 (2009) people. The comparison sample included 9775 and 9784 respondents in 2005 and 2009-10 respectively. Self-reported body mass index showed no change, and neither were there significant changes in behaviors relative to secular trends. Most significant outcomes were relevant to social conditions, specifically sense of belonging to community in the intervention communities.
Health outcome indicators at the community level may not be sufficiently sensitive to capture changes which, over a relatively short term, would only be expected to be incremental, given that interventions were directed primarily to creating environmental conditions supportive of changes in behavioral outcomes rather than toward health outcome change directly.