This study examines the adequacy of the dietary intake based on age, sex, and level of nutritional risk among 98 frail elderly persons receiving home care through Community Care Access Centres. The dietary intakes were measured using 24-hour recalls and were compared with the dietary reference intake. The participants' intakes of both macronutrients and micronutrients were found to be inadequate. On average, elderly persons were consuming more than the recommended amount of protein, but the average intakes of many vitamins and minerals were less than optimal based on the average intakes. Paradoxically, more than half of elderly participants were overweight or obese. The results highlight the need for appropriate nutrition, education, and support for elderly persons receiving home care.
Not much is known about adherence to special diets in type 1 diabetes, characteristics of individuals with special diets, and whether such practices should raise concerns with respect to meeting the dietary recommendations. In this study, we assessed the frequencies of adherence to special diets, in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes, and investigated the association between special diet adherence and dietary intake, measured as dietary patterns and nutrient intakes.
During the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study visit, participants with type 1 diabetes (n?=?1429) were instructed to complete a diet questionnaire inquiring about the adherence to special diets. The participants also completed a food record, from which energy and nutrient intakes were calculated.
In all, 36.6% participants reported adhering to some special diet. Most commonly reported special diets were lactose-free (17.1%), protein restriction (10.0%), vegetarian (7.0%), and gluten-free (5.6%) diet. Special diet adherents were more frequently women, older, had longer diabetes duration, and more frequently had various diabetes complications. Mean carbohydrate intakes were close to the lower levels of the recommendation in all diet groups, which was reflected in low mean fibre intakes but high frequencies of meeting the sucrose recommendations. The recommendation for saturated fatty acid intake was frequently unmet, with the highest frequencies observed in vegetarians. Of the micronutrients, vitamin D, folate, and iron recommendations were most frequently unmet, with some differences between the diet groups.
Special diets are frequently followed by individuals with type 1 diabetes. The adherents are more frequently women, and have longer diabetes duration and more diabetes complications. Achieving the dietary recommendations differed between diets, and depended on the nutrient in question. Overall, intakes of fibre, vitamin D, folate, and iron fell short of the recommendations.
Prevalence estimates may be biased if the characteristics of respondents differ from those of non-respondents in surveys. In this study, we used a follow-up telephone interview of initial non-respondents to examine the differences--in terms of self-rated health and health behaviours--to initial postal respondents and to assess improvements in prevalence estimates.
Following a postal questionnaire survey using a random sample (n = 5000) of the Finnish working-age population with a response rate of 57% (n = 2826), a follow-up telephone survey was performed based on 1261 non-respondents (response rate 56%, n = 708) in 2010. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity, self-rated fitness, dietary habits and self-rated health were calculated for the survey population with and without a telephone interview. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in health behaviours and health between the initial postal questionnaire respondents and follow-up telephone interview respondents.
The total response rate increased from 57% to 71% when the telephone respondents were included. The telephone survey indicated that both male and female telephone respondents were more often smokers, and female telephone respondents were more often heavy episodic drinkers and less often reported poor self-rated fitness than postal respondents. Nonetheless, the prevalence rates of outcome variables did not change significantly when telephone respondents were included.
The response rate of surveys can be increased by using a telephone survey in follow-up contacts with non-respondents. As non-respondents differ from respondents, this contributes to an improvement--although small--in internal validity.
Early adulthood is a period associated with poor diet and rapid weight gain. This is also an age of transition, including environmental, social and lifestyle changes which may be associated with changes in diet. We assess longitudinal associations between four early adulthood life transitions (leaving home, leaving education, entering employment, and cohabitation) and changes in consumption of fruit, vegetables, confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs).
Participants (n?=?1100) from the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study, reported data on diet and life transitions on up to eight occasions from age 14 to age 30. Diet data were self-reported in response to questions on intake of fruit, vegetables, confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages. Growth models were developed to describe changing intake of each of the four diet indicators with age. Fixed-effects regression models assessed associations between the four life transitions and within-individual changes in diet indicators, with adjustment for the remaining transitions and parenthood.
Diet indicators showed quadratic trajectories with age: fruit and vegetable intakes declined from age 14 to ages 23 and 21 respectively, before increasing to age 30. SSB and confectionery intakes increased to age 18, before subsequently decreasing. Leaving the parental home was associated with a decrease in fruit intake of -?0.54 times/week (95% confidence interval (95%CI): -0.87;-0.22) and vegetable intake of -?0.43 times/week (95%CI: -0.70;-0.15). Leaving education was associated with increases in confectionery (0.33 times/week (95%CI: 0.04;0.62)) and SSB intakes (0.49 times/week (95%CI: 0.10;0.87).
Leaving home and leaving education are associated with negative changes in diet and may present opportunities for effective diet and obesity intervention. Further study of these transitions is needed to understand the mechanisms mediating associations between life transitions and changes in diet.
The association between milk and dairy intake and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and mortality has been evaluated in many studies, but these studies have had conflicting results with no clear conclusion on causal or confounding associations. The present study aims to further address this association by cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of the associations between exposure to various types of dairy products and metabolic risk markers among inhabitants in northern Sweden while taking other lifestyle factors into account.
Respondents in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme with complete and plausible diet data between 1991 and 2016 were included, yielding 124,934 observations from 90,512 unique subjects. For longitudinal analysis, 27,682 participants with a visit 8-12?years after the first visit were identified. All participants completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Metabolic risk markers, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum (S) cholesterol and triglycerides, and blood glucose, were measured. Participants were categorized into quintiles by intake of dairy products, and risk (odds ratios, OR) of undesirable levels of metabolic risk markers was assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. In longitudinal analyses, intake quintiles were related to desirable levels of metabolic risk markers at both visits or deterioration at follow-up using Cox regression analyses.
The OR of being classified with an undesirable BMI decreased with increasing quintiles of total dairy, cheese and butter intake but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. The OR of being classified with an undesirable S-cholesterol level increased with increasing intake of total dairy, butter and high fat (3%) non-fermented milk, whereas an undesirable S-triglyceride level was inversely associated with cheese and butter intake in women. In longitudinal analyses, increasing butter intake was associated with deterioration of S-cholesterol and blood glucose levels, whereas increasing cheese intake was associated with a lower risk of deterioration of S-triglycerides.
Confounding factors likely contribute to the demonstrated association between dairy intake and mortality, and other medical conditions and analyses should be stratified by dairy type.
Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated compounds in a study population from northern Norway (44 women and 16 men). In addition to donating a blood sample, the participants answered a detailed questionnaire about diet and lifestyle. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (29 ng/mL), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (3.9 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (0.5 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (0.8 ng/mL), and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) (1.1 ng/mL) were detected in more than 95% of all samples. Of the dietary items investigated, fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the concentrations of PFOS and PFHpS, whereas fatty fish to a smaller extent significantly increased the levels of the same compounds. Men had significantly higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFHpS than women. There were significant differences in PFOS isomer pattern between genders, with women having the largest proportion of linear PFOS. PFOS, PFHxS, and PFHpS concentrations also increased with age.
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007 Jul;80(7):643-817219182
Intake of 2-3 g/d of plant stanols as esters lowers LDL cholesterol level, but there is no information about the efficacy and safety of a respective very high daily intake. We studied the effects of 8.8 g/d of plant stanols as esters on serum lipids and safety variables in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the intervention (n=25) and control (n=24) groups consumed spread and drink enriched or not with plant stanol esters for 10 weeks.
Plant stanols reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations by 12.8 and 17.3% from baseline and by 12.0 and 17.1% from controls (P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and baseline food habits on the dietary response to a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern and maintenance of dietary modifications in 73 healthy women. The 12-week nutritional intervention in free-living conditions consisted of two group courses and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. A follow-up visit was performed 12 weeks after the end of the intervention (week 24). A Mediterranean dietary score was derived from a food frequency questionnaire, administered at 0, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Marital status, socioeconomic level, educational level and household size did not seem to influence the dietary response, whereas women without children followed more closely dietary advice than women with children (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-10.0). Planning food purchases in function of weekly discounts was also associated with better dietary response to the intervention (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.8). Nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern was effective in modifying food habits of healthy women. The fact of having children or not and food purchase habits seem to influence the response to a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern.
Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland & Landspítali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Revised infant dietary recommendations from the Icelandic Nutrition Council (Nutrition: the first twelve months. Reykjav?k, Iceland: The Icelandic Nutrition Council, 2003) are outlined in a booklet provided during free postnatal care. These focus on increasing the duration of exclusive and total breastfeeding and reducing cow's milk consumption. This study explored whether maternal education and other parental factors affected whether mothers followed the recommendations.
Mothers of randomly selected healthy infants (n = 200) completed questionnaires on body mass index (BMI), age, education (basic, medium and higher), household income, smoking and parental factors. Dietary data were collected during home visits by a researcher (0-4 months) and through monthly food records completed by parents or caregivers (5-12 months).
Each maternal education level increased breastfeeding duration by 0.72 months (95% CI = 0.04, 1.39) and reduced cow's milk consumption by 36.7 mL/day (95% CI = -70.11, -3.03), when adjusted for maternal BMI, age, smoking and family income. Maternal education was not associated with duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Duration of exclusive and total breastfeeding was inversely associated with maternal BMI, B = -0.10 (95% CI = -0.16, -0.05) and -0.13 (95% CI = -0.23, -0.03), respectively.
Mothers with higher education appear to have adapted more easily to the revised recommendations on infant diet, particularly when their infants are 6-12 months old. Higher maternal BMI was associated with shorter duration of both exclusive and total breastfeeding.
The aim of this paper is to explore the difficulty faced by consumers in complying with health-related dietary guidelines, focusing on those guidelines that consumers find it more/less difficult to meet and the factors driving the ability to make associated dietary changes. Participants reported self-assessed compliance with 12 dietary recommendations predominantly directed at reducing the risk of heart disease. The difficulty of complying with each of the dietary guidelines was measured using a Rasch model, while the determinants of ability to comply with the dietary recommendations as a whole were identified using regression analysis. The more difficult dietary recommendations included limiting consumption of red meats and consuming the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables. Attitudinal variables associated with food, nutrition and health, perception of cholesterol risk and a range of socio-demographic variables, including age, gender and education, were significant determinants of person ability to comply with the dietary recommendations. The results show that there are significant differences in the difficulty faced by consumers in complying with particular dietary recommendations, while there is substantial variation in the ability to eat a healthy diet across participants.