This study examines the adequacy of the dietary intake based on age, sex, and level of nutritional risk among 98 frail elderly persons receiving home care through Community Care Access Centres. The dietary intakes were measured using 24-hour recalls and were compared with the dietary reference intake. The participants' intakes of both macronutrients and micronutrients were found to be inadequate. On average, elderly persons were consuming more than the recommended amount of protein, but the average intakes of many vitamins and minerals were less than optimal based on the average intakes. Paradoxically, more than half of elderly participants were overweight or obese. The results highlight the need for appropriate nutrition, education, and support for elderly persons receiving home care.
Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke.
Incident cases of stroke among 55?338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records. Cases of ischemic stroke were further subclassified based on etiology according to the TOAST classification system (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Information on diet was collected at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios of total stroke and subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 2283 cases of incident stroke were verified, including 1879 ischemic strokes. Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, as reflected by a higher Healthy Nordic Food Index score, was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The hazards ratio comparing an index score of 4 to 6 (high adherence) with an index score of 0 to 1 (low adherence) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98) for total stroke. Inverse associations were observed for ischemic stroke, including large-artery atherosclerosis. No trend was observed for hemorrhagic stroke; however, a statistically insignificant trend was observed for intracerebral hemorrhage.
Our findings suggest that a healthy Nordic diet may be recommended for the prevention of stroke.
Not much is known about adherence to special diets in type 1 diabetes, characteristics of individuals with special diets, and whether such practices should raise concerns with respect to meeting the dietary recommendations. In this study, we assessed the frequencies of adherence to special diets, in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes, and investigated the association between special diet adherence and dietary intake, measured as dietary patterns and nutrient intakes.
During the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study visit, participants with type 1 diabetes (n?=?1429) were instructed to complete a diet questionnaire inquiring about the adherence to special diets. The participants also completed a food record, from which energy and nutrient intakes were calculated.
In all, 36.6% participants reported adhering to some special diet. Most commonly reported special diets were lactose-free (17.1%), protein restriction (10.0%), vegetarian (7.0%), and gluten-free (5.6%) diet. Special diet adherents were more frequently women, older, had longer diabetes duration, and more frequently had various diabetes complications. Mean carbohydrate intakes were close to the lower levels of the recommendation in all diet groups, which was reflected in low mean fibre intakes but high frequencies of meeting the sucrose recommendations. The recommendation for saturated fatty acid intake was frequently unmet, with the highest frequencies observed in vegetarians. Of the micronutrients, vitamin D, folate, and iron recommendations were most frequently unmet, with some differences between the diet groups.
Special diets are frequently followed by individuals with type 1 diabetes. The adherents are more frequently women, and have longer diabetes duration and more diabetes complications. Achieving the dietary recommendations differed between diets, and depended on the nutrient in question. Overall, intakes of fibre, vitamin D, folate, and iron fell short of the recommendations.
Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns.
Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).
Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases.
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 2009 May;25(5):279-8619417858
Cites: J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Nov;108(11):1888-9518954579
Cites: Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009 Aug;2(8):720-3119656771
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1656-6419828712
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Dec;33(12):1419-2619736556
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan;91(1):208-1719923369
Prevalence estimates may be biased if the characteristics of respondents differ from those of non-respondents in surveys. In this study, we used a follow-up telephone interview of initial non-respondents to examine the differences--in terms of self-rated health and health behaviours--to initial postal respondents and to assess improvements in prevalence estimates.
Following a postal questionnaire survey using a random sample (n = 5000) of the Finnish working-age population with a response rate of 57% (n = 2826), a follow-up telephone survey was performed based on 1261 non-respondents (response rate 56%, n = 708) in 2010. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity, self-rated fitness, dietary habits and self-rated health were calculated for the survey population with and without a telephone interview. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in health behaviours and health between the initial postal questionnaire respondents and follow-up telephone interview respondents.
The total response rate increased from 57% to 71% when the telephone respondents were included. The telephone survey indicated that both male and female telephone respondents were more often smokers, and female telephone respondents were more often heavy episodic drinkers and less often reported poor self-rated fitness than postal respondents. Nonetheless, the prevalence rates of outcome variables did not change significantly when telephone respondents were included.
The response rate of surveys can be increased by using a telephone survey in follow-up contacts with non-respondents. As non-respondents differ from respondents, this contributes to an improvement--although small--in internal validity.
Early adulthood is a period associated with poor diet and rapid weight gain. This is also an age of transition, including environmental, social and lifestyle changes which may be associated with changes in diet. We assess longitudinal associations between four early adulthood life transitions (leaving home, leaving education, entering employment, and cohabitation) and changes in consumption of fruit, vegetables, confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs).
Participants (n?=?1100) from the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study, reported data on diet and life transitions on up to eight occasions from age 14 to age 30. Diet data were self-reported in response to questions on intake of fruit, vegetables, confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages. Growth models were developed to describe changing intake of each of the four diet indicators with age. Fixed-effects regression models assessed associations between the four life transitions and within-individual changes in diet indicators, with adjustment for the remaining transitions and parenthood.
Diet indicators showed quadratic trajectories with age: fruit and vegetable intakes declined from age 14 to ages 23 and 21 respectively, before increasing to age 30. SSB and confectionery intakes increased to age 18, before subsequently decreasing. Leaving the parental home was associated with a decrease in fruit intake of -?0.54 times/week (95% confidence interval (95%CI): -0.87;-0.22) and vegetable intake of -?0.43 times/week (95%CI: -0.70;-0.15). Leaving education was associated with increases in confectionery (0.33 times/week (95%CI: 0.04;0.62)) and SSB intakes (0.49 times/week (95%CI: 0.10;0.87).
Leaving home and leaving education are associated with negative changes in diet and may present opportunities for effective diet and obesity intervention. Further study of these transitions is needed to understand the mechanisms mediating associations between life transitions and changes in diet.
A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
Science and technology are modernizing the field of nutrition and are consequently increasing its complexity. New food developments such as fortified foods and functional foods are evidence of its modernization. The increased specificity of nutrient- and food-intake recommendations and the breadth of claims on food packages are evidence of nutrition's growing complexity. Unfortunately, research on the consumer acceptability of new food developments and nutrition education initiatives has not kept pace with advancements in the field. This is especially true for older adults, a subgroup of the population that appears to be under-researched and not commonly targeted with education initiatives. Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the North American population. Research and education aimed at this demographic is warranted to ensure older adults have the right knowledge and skill set to optimize their food selections and dietary patterns with the possibility of improving health and the quality and longevity of life.
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to 1) determine the prevalence of celiac disease in Danish children with type 1 diabetes and 2) estimate the clinical effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with diabetes and celiac disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a region comprising 24% of the Danish population, all patients
ReprintIn: Ugeskr Laeger. 2007 May 21;169(21):2029-3217553386
Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid, increasing athletic performance, endurance, and mental chronometry at doses as low as 1-3 mg.kg-1. As coffee is a readily available and commonly ingested form of caffeine, the two are often equated. However, coffee also contains hundreds of other biologically active compounds, many of which are metabolically distinct from caffeine. The purpose of this review was to examine the prevalence of coffee and (or) caffeine consumption among elite Canadian athletes, and to delineate the effects of coffee and caffeine on physical activity, weight maintenance, performance, and metabolism. A total of 270 self-reported 3-day food records were examined for caffeine intake from athletes registered with Canadian Sport Centres in 2005 and 2006. Athletes ranged in age from 16-45 years, and competed in 38 different sports. Results showed that 30% of athletes ingested >1 mg.kg-1.day-1 from a variety of sources. Average daily intake was 0.85 +/- 13 mg.kg-1. Caffeine intake was not correlated with any 1 sport; the 10 highest caffeine users were athletes from 9 different sports, including skill, endurance, and power sports. No differences were noted for average caffeine ingestion between summer and winter sports. High caffeine intakes corresponded to coffee ingestion, with the 25 highest individual intakes (193-895 mg.day-1) from coffee drinkers. In summary, it can be concluded that the majority of high-level Canadian athletes consume dietary caffeine primarily in the form of coffee. However, levels consumed are insufficient to elicit performance enhancement. Potential detrimental effects of caffeine consumption on exercise performance include gastric upset, withdrawal, sleep disturbance, and interactions with other dietary supplements.