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Assessment of Nutritional Adequacy of Packaged Gluten-free Food Products.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271315
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2014 Dec;75(4):186-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Tasha Kulai
Mohsin Rashid
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2014 Dec;75(4):186-90
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bread - adverse effects - analysis - economics
British Columbia
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet, Gluten-Free - adverse effects - economics
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects - economics
Edible Grain - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Fast Foods - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Flour - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Food Labeling
Frozen Foods - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Humans
Meat Products - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Nutritive Value
Serving Size
Abstract
There is concern about the nutritional quality of processed gluten-free (GF) products. The aim was to investigate the nutrient composition and cost of processed GF products compared with similar regular products.
Product size, price, caloric value, and macro- and micronutrient composition were compared between foods labeled "Gluten-free" and comparable regular products in 5 grocery stores in 3 Canadian cities. Data were calculated per 100 g of product.
A total of 131 products were studied (71 GF, 60 regular). Overall, calories were comparable between GF and regular foods. However, fat content of GF breads was higher (mean 7.7 vs. 3.6 g, P = 0.003), whereas protein was lower (mean 5.0 vs. 8.0 g, P = 0.001). Mean carbohydrate content of GF pasta was higher (78 vs. 74 g, P = 0.001), whereas protein (7.5 vs. 13.3 g, P
PubMed ID
26067071 View in PubMed
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Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123566
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ingegerd Johansson
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Stegmayr
Kurt Boman
Göran Hallmans
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. ingegerd.johansson@odont.umu.se
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - trends
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - adverse effects
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Diet, Reducing - adverse effects - trends
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Mass Media - trends
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Sweden
Weight Gain
Abstract
In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden.
Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI.
Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking.
Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986-1992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with introduction of a positive media support for low carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diet. The decrease and following increase in cholesterol levels occurred simultaneously with the time trends in food selection, whereas a constant increase in BMI remained unaltered. These changes in risk factors may have important effects on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Notes
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PubMed ID
22686621 View in PubMed
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Cereal byproducts have prebiotic potential in mice fed a high-fat diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261577
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Aug 13;62(32):8169-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-13-2014
Author
Karin Berger
Peter Falck
Caroline Linninge
Ulf Nilsson
Ulrika Axling
Carl Grey
Henrik Stålbrand
Eva Nordberg Karlsson
Margareta Nyman
Cecilia Holm
Patrick Adlercreutz
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Aug 13;62(32):8169-78
Date
Aug-13-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Avena sativa - chemistry
Bifidobacterium - growth & development - isolation & purification - metabolism
Cecum - metabolism - microbiology
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Fatty Acids, Volatile - metabolism
Food-Processing Industry - economics
Hordeum - chemistry
Hot Temperature
Hydrolysis
Industrial Waste - analysis - economics
Insulin Resistance
Intestinal Mucosa - metabolism - microbiology
Lactobacillaceae - growth & development - isolation & purification - metabolism
Male
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Obesity - diet therapy - etiology - metabolism - microbiology
Prebiotics - economics
Secale cereale - chemistry
Sweden
Abstract
Barley husks, rye bran, and a fiber residue from oat milk production were processed by heat pretreatment, various separation steps, and treatment with an endoxylanase in order to improve the prebiotic potential of these cereal byproducts. Metabolic functions were intended to improve along with improved microbial activity. The products obtained were included in a high-fat mouse diet so that all diets contained 5% dietary fiber. In addition, high-fat and low-fat controls as well as partially hydrolyzed guar gum were included in the study. The soluble fiber product obtained from rye bran caused a significant increase in the bifidobacteria (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.38 (6.04-6.66) and 7.47 (7.30-7.74), respectively; p
PubMed ID
25041844 View in PubMed
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Dairy consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish women and men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125085
Source
Stroke. 2012 Jul;43(7):1775-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Susanna C Larsson
Jarmo Virtamo
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. susanna.larsson@ki.se
Source
Stroke. 2012 Jul;43(7):1775-80
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Dairy Products - adverse effects
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Stroke - diet therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Epidemiological studies of the associations of low-fat dairy and specific dairy food consumption with risk of stroke are sparse. Our aim was to examine the association between consumption of total, low-fat, full-fat, and specific dairy foods and risk of stroke in a prospective cohort study.
We followed 74,961 Swedish women and men who were free from cardiovascular disease and cancer and who completed a 96-item food frequency questionnaire in 1997. Incident cases of stroke were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry.
During a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, we ascertained 4089 cases of stroke, including 3159 cerebral infarctions, 583 hemorrhagic strokes, and 347 unspecified strokes. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods was inversely associated with risk of total stroke (P for trend=0.03) and cerebral infarction (P for trend=0.03). The multivariable relative risks for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of low-fat dairy consumption were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97) for total stroke and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.98) for cerebral infarction. Consumption of total dairy, full-fat dairy, milk, sour milk/yogurt, cheese, and cream/crème fraiche was not associated with stroke risk.
These results suggest that low-fat dairy consumption is inversely associated with the risk of stroke.
PubMed ID
22517598 View in PubMed
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Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity in overweight and obese youth at risk of type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104988
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr;99(4):804-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Rebecca C Mollard
Martin Sénéchal
Andrea C MacIntosh
Jacqueline Hay
Brandy A Wicklow
Kristy D M Wittmeier
Elizabeth A C Sellers
Heather J Dean
Lawrence Ryner
Lori Berard
Jonathan M McGavock
Author Affiliation
Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Physiotherapy, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (KDMW); CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (LR); and the Diabetes Research Group Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (LB).
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr;99(4):804-12
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Body mass index
Carbonated Beverages - adverse effects
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Dietary Fiber - therapeutic use
Dietary Sucrose - adverse effects
Fatty Liver - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Obesity, Abdominal - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Overweight - diet therapy - etiology - pathology - physiopathology
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Abstract
Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis, an important precursor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, are undefined.
We explored the roles of sugar and fat intake as determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity in overweight adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.
This was a cross-sectional study of dietary patterns and adipose tissue distribution in 74 overweight adolescents (aged: 15.4 ± 1.8 y; body mass index z score: 2.2 ± 0.4). Main outcome measures were hepatic steatosis (=5.5% fat:water) measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and visceral obesity (visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio =0.25) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Main exposure variables were dietary intake and habits assessed by the Harvard Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire.
Hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity were evident in 43% and 44% of the sample, respectively. Fried food consumption was more common in adolescents with hepatic steatosis than in adolescents without hepatic steatosis (41% compared with 18%; P = 0.04). Total fat intake (ß = 0.51, P = 0.03) and the consumption of >35% of daily energy intake from fat (OR: 11.8; 95% CI: 1.6, 86.6; P = 0.02) were both positively associated with hepatic steatosis. Available carbohydrate (ß = 0.54, P = 0.02) and the frequent consumption of soda were positively associated with visceral obesity (OR: 6.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 34.0; P = 0.03). Daily fiber intake was associated with reduced odds of visceral obesity (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.98; P = 0.02) but not hepatic steatosis.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with a greater intake of fat and fried foods, whereas visceral obesity is associated with increased consumption of sugar and reduced consumption of fiber in overweight and obese adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.
PubMed ID
24522441 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282796
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Oct;116(8):1383-1393
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Stine M Ulven
Lena Leder
Elisabeth Elind
Inger Ottestad
Jacob J Christensen
Vibeke H Telle-Hansen
Anne J Skjetne
Ellen Raael
Navida A Sheikh
Marianne Holck
Kristin Torvik
Amandine Lamglait
Kari Thyholt
Marte G Byfuglien
Linda Granlund
Lene F Andersen
Kirsten B Holven
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Oct;116(8):1383-1393
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - ethnology - etiology - prevention & control
Cholesterol - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects - economics - ethnology
Double-Blind Method
Fatty Acids, Omega-6 - administration & dosage - economics - therapeutic use
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food Quality
Foods, Specialized - economics
Healthy Diet - economics - ethnology
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - diet therapy - ethnology - physiopathology
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Patient Dropouts
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (P
PubMed ID
27737722 View in PubMed
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Fish consumption and frying of fish in relation to type 2 diabetes incidence: a prospective cohort study of Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284992
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Mar;56(2):843-852
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Alice Wallin
Daniela Di Giuseppe
Nicola Orsini
Agneta Åkesson
Nita G Forouhi
Alicja Wolk
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Mar;56(2):843-852
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Animals
Cohort Studies
Cooking
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - ethnology - etiology - prevention & control
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects - ethnology
Fishes
Follow-Up Studies
Food Contamination
Healthy Diet - adverse effects - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - toxicity
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Registries
Seafood - adverse effects
Shellfish - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Water Pollutants - toxicity
Abstract
Epidemiological evidence on the association between fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes is heterogeneous across geographical regions. Differences related to fish consumption pattern could possibly help explain the discrepancy between the findings. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between fish consumption (total, fried, specific fish items) and type 2 diabetes incidence, taking exposure to contaminants present in fish (polychlorinated biphenyls and methyl mercury) into consideration.
The population-based Cohort of Swedish Men, including 35,583 men aged 45-79 years, was followed from 1998 to 2012. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards models.
During 15 years of follow-up, 3624 incident cases were identified. Total fish consumption (=4 servings/week vs.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26687687 View in PubMed
Less detail

High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117797
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb;97(2):411-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Tina K Jensen
Berit L Heitmann
Martin Blomberg Jensen
Thorhallur I Halldorsson
Anna-Maria Andersson
Niels E Skakkebæk
Ulla N Joensen
Mette P Lauritsen
Peter Christiansen
Christine Dalgård
Tina H Lassen
Niels Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. tkjensen@health.sdu.dk
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb;97(2):411-8
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Mass Screening
Oligospermia - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Semen Analysis
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Saturated fat intake has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and cancer risk, and a newly published study found an association between saturated fat intake and a lower sperm concentration in infertile men.
The objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population.
In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders.
A lower sperm concentration and total sperm count in men with a high intake of saturated fat was found. A significant dose-response association was found, and men in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake had a 38% (95% CI: 0.1%, 61%) lower sperm concentration and a 41% (95% CI: 4%, 64%) lower total sperm count than did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found.
Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of subnormal human sperm counts. A reduction in saturated fat intake may be beneficial for both general and reproductive health.
PubMed ID
23269819 View in PubMed
Less detail

Liraglutide suppresses postprandial triglyceride and apolipoprotein B48 elevations after a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113813
Source
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Nov;15(11):1040-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
K. Hermansen
T A Bækdal
M. Düring
A. Pietraszek
L S Mortensen
H. Jørgensen
A. Flint
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine and Endocrinology MEA, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Nov;15(11):1040-8
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - complications - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cross-Over Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - complications - drug therapy
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Double-Blind Method
Female
Gastric Emptying - drug effects
Germany - epidemiology
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 - adverse effects - analogs & derivatives - blood - pharmacokinetics - therapeutic use
Half-Life
Humans
Hyperlipidemias - complications - etiology - prevention & control
Hypoglycemic Agents - adverse effects - blood - pharmacokinetics - therapeutic use
Hypolipidemic Agents - adverse effects - blood - pharmacokinetics - therapeutic use
Lipids - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications
Postprandial Period
Risk factors
Abstract
Postprandial triglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effects of steady-state liraglutide 1.8?mg versus placebo on postprandial plasma lipid concentrations after 3?weeks of treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
In a cross-over trial, patients with T2DM (n?=?20, 18-75?years, BMI 18.5-40?kg/m²) were randomized to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (weekly dose escalation from 0.6 to 1.8?mg) and placebo. After each 3-week period, a standardized fat-rich meal was provided, and the effects of liraglutide on triglyceride (primary endpoint AUC(0-8h)), apolipoprotein B48, non-esterified fatty acids, glycaemic responses and gastric emptying were assessed. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00993304.
Novo Nordisk A/S.
After 3?weeks, mean postprandial triglyceride (AUC(0-8h) liraglutide/placebo treatment-ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.62-0.83], p?=?0.0004) and apolipoprotein B48 (AUC(0-8h) ratio 0.65 [0.58-0.73], p?
PubMed ID
23683069 View in PubMed
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Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116558
Source
Toxicology. 2013 Nov 16;313(2-3):103-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-16-2013
Author
Maria Florian
Jin Yan
Saad Ulhaq
Melanie Coughlan
Mahemuti Laziyan
William Willmore
Xiaolei Jin
Author Affiliation
Toxicology Research Division, Food Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9; Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6.
Source
Toxicology. 2013 Nov 16;313(2-3):103-12
Date
Nov-16-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biological Markers - metabolism
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cell Culture Techniques
Cell Line
Cell Survival - drug effects
Complex Mixtures - blood - toxicity
Coronary Vessels - drug effects - metabolism - pathology
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Dietary Sucrose - adverse effects
Endothelial Cells - drug effects - metabolism - pathology
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Ethanol - adverse effects
Humans
Lipoproteins, LDL - blood
Lipoproteins, VLDL - blood
Models, Biological
Abstract
It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also occur in vivo.
PubMed ID
23384447 View in PubMed
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