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The American paradox: the role of energy-dense fat-reduced food in the increasing prevalence of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61829
Source
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998 Nov;1(6):573-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
A. Astrup
Author Affiliation
Research Department of Human Nutrition and LMC, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ast@kvl.dk
Source
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998 Nov;1(6):573-7
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Energy Intake - physiology
Humans
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Although surveys have reported that the fat content of the diet has decreased over past decades, the prevalence of obesity has continued to rise in Europe and North America. This phenomenon, 'the American paradox', has been attributed partly to an inability of the reduction in dietary fat to reduce excess body fat, and partly to the over-consumption of low-fat products, which, despite their reduced fat content, have in some cases been accused of maintaining a high energy density due to low fibre and water contents, and a high content of refined carbohydrates. In Denmark, the prevalence of obesity has increased in a period in which national dietary surveys have reported a reduction of more than 10% in dietary fat content. Analysing the Danish situation, it seems unlikely that the occurrence of the American paradox in Denmark is caused by the increased consumption of energy-dense, low-fat foods. Other explanations, e.g. the under-reporting of dietary fat in surveys and the clustering of obesity-promoting lifestyles in subgroups of the population, should be sought.
PubMed ID
10565412 View in PubMed
Less detail

Applying the stages of change to multiple low-fat dietary behavioral contexts. An examination of stage occupation and discontinuity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149472
Source
Appetite. 2009 Dec;53(3):345-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Ronald C Plotnikoff
Sonia Lippke
Steven T Johnson
Stephen B Hotz
Nicholas J Birkett
Susan R Rossi
Author Affiliation
School of Education, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Ron.Plotnikoff@newcastle.edu
Source
Appetite. 2009 Dec;53(3):345-53
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Algorithms
Behavior Therapy
Body mass index
Cognition
Diet, Fat-Restricted - psychology
Educational Status
Feeding Behavior - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Social Behavior
Abstract
Consuming a diet lower in total fat is important for the prevention of many chronic diseases. Individual and population-based programs targeting this behavior must be theoretically grounded and consider the context within which dietary behavior change may be attempted. To identify the factors differentiating stage of readiness to follow a low-fat diet, a sample (N=1216) of adults was surveyed using 4 different staging algorithms to assess stages of change and associated social-cognitive variables (pros, cons, and temptation). Approximately 75% of the sample occupied the Action/Maintenance stages for all staging algorithms. In general, pros increased and cons decreased with higher stage occupation. Temptation decreased from the early pre-action to the action stages for the different staging algorithms. When developing programs to decrease dietary-fat intake, social-cognitive variables associated with stage transition for behaviors related to consuming a low-fat diet may have relevance to researchers and clinicians.
PubMed ID
19635512 View in PubMed
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Blood pressure is lower in children and adolescents with a low-saturated-fat diet since infancy: the special turku coronary risk factor intervention project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151551
Source
Hypertension. 2009 Jun;53(6):918-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Harri Niinikoski
Antti Jula
Jorma Viikari
Tapani Rönnemaa
Pekka Heino
Hanna Lagström
Eero Jokinen
Olli Simell
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. harri.niinikoski@tyks.fi
Source
Hypertension. 2009 Jun;53(6):918-24
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Blood Pressure - physiology
Blood Pressure Determination
Child
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Eating
Fatty acids
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - prevention & control
Infant
Intervention Studies
Male
Probability
Prospective Studies
Reference Values
Sensitivity and specificity
Sex Factors
Abstract
Blood pressure was measured in the prospective randomized Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project Study with an oscillometric method every year from 7 months to 15 years of age in 540 children receiving a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet and in 522 control children. Dietary intakes, family history of parental hypertension, and grandparental vascular disease were recorded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 1.0 mm Hg lower (95% CI for systolic: -1.7 to -0.2 mm Hg; 95% CI for diastolic: -1.5 to -0.4 mm Hg) in children receiving low-saturated-fat counseling through childhood than in control children. Intakes of saturated fat were lower (P
PubMed ID
19364991 View in PubMed
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Canadian recommended nutrient intakes underestimate true energy requirements in middle-aged women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207125
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):314-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
P J Jones
L J Martin
W. Su
N F Boyd
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. jonesp@agradm.lan.mcgill.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):314-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Deuterium
Diet Records
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Energy intake
Energy Metabolism
Female
Humans
Middle Aged - physiology
Nutrition Assessment
Nutritional Requirements
Oxygen Isotopes
Random Allocation
Abstract
To examine whether Health Canada's Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) and FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, United Nations University) values provide accurate indices of true energy requirements, energy expenditure was determined using doubly labelled water (DLW) over 13 days in a group of 29 middle-aged women. Energy intakes were calculated from weighed food intake, and energy expenditures and intakes were then compared with individual calculated RNI requirements. The mean energy requirement as determined by DLW expenditure (9.56 +/- 0.53 MJ/d) was higher (p
PubMed ID
9401165 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular disease risk factors in young children in the STRIP baby project. Special Turku coronary Risk factor Intervention Project for children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202059
Source
Ann Med. 1999 Apr;31 Suppl 1:55-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
O. Simell
H. Niinikoski
J. Viikari
L. Rask-Nissilä
A. Tammi
T. Rönnemaa
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, University of Turku, Finland. olli.simell@utu.fi
Source
Ann Med. 1999 Apr;31 Suppl 1:55-61
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cholesterol, Dietary - administration & dosage
Counseling
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Growth
Humans
Infant
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Lipids - blood
Lipoproteins - blood
Male
Abstract
Introducing nutritional principles of preventive cardiology to the care of young children may improve permanently adherence to a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet later in life. This approach has not been readily adapted because of worries of the possible effects of such a diet on the growth and development of children. In the STRIP baby project, 1062 infants were randomized at 7 months of age into an intervention group (n = 540) or a control group (n = 522). The counselling of the intervention children aimed at a fat intake of 30% of energy after the age of 1 year and to a 1:1:1 ratio in saturated:monounsaturated:polyunsaturated fat intake. Dietary intake, growth and serum lipid concentrations were monitored in the children regularly through the first years of life. The intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol were lower and the intake of polyunsaturated fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P/S) in the diet were higher in the intervention children than in the controls. During the first 3 years of the trial, the serum cholesterol concentration was 3-6% lower in the intervention children than in the controls (95% CI for the mean difference between groups from -0.27 to -0.12 mmol/L). No differences in the growth of the children were observed between the groups. We conclude that repeated individualized counselling aiming at reduced consumption of saturated fat combined with regular follow-up is effective and does not restrict the growth of children.
PubMed ID
10342501 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199712
Source
Prev Med. 1999 Dec;29(6 Pt 2):S124-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1999
Author
E. Vartiainen
P. Puska
P. Jousilahti
H J Korhonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Prev Med. 1999 Dec;29(6 Pt 2):S124-9
Date
Dec-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Finland - epidemiology
Health promotion
Humans
Pilot Projects
Primary Prevention
Risk factors
Abstract
We summarize here the evidence from the 1960s and 1970s of exceptionally high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Finland. In parallel with voluntary and governmental prevention programs, the level of risk factors and CVD attack rates have shown dramatic improvement in the past 25 years, but the decline has slowed in recent years. This experience strongly supports population-wide strategies for primary prevention, and it also highlights the continued need for primordial prevention directed toward youth in high-risk societies.
PubMed ID
10641830 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cardiovascular event risk in relation to dietary fat intake in middle-aged individuals: data from The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87753
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Oct;14(5):701-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Leosdottir Margret
Nilsson Peter M
Nilsson Jan-Ake
Berglund Göran
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Lund University, University Hospital (UMAS), Malmö, Sweden. Margret.Leosdottir@med.lu.se
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Oct;14(5):701-6
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - diet therapy - etiology - prevention & control
Cohort Studies
Diet
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Dietary Fats - pharmacology
Dietary Fiber
Energy intake
Female
Fruit
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sweden
Time Factors
Vegetables
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND DESIGN: The hypothesis that diets rich in total and saturated fat and poor in unsaturated fats increase the risk for cardiovascular disease is still vividly debated. The aim of this study was to examine whether total fat, saturated fat, or unsaturated fat intakes are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: 28 098 middle-aged individuals (61% women) participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study between 1991 and 1996. In this analysis, individuals with an earlier history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. With adjustments made for confounding by age and various anthropometric, social, dietary, and life-style factors, hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for individuals categorized by quartiles of fat intake [HR (95% confidence interval, CI), Cox's regression model]. RESULTS: No trend towards higher cardiovascular event risk for women or men with higher total or saturated fat intakes, was observed. Total fat: HR (95% CI) for fourth quartile was 0.98 (0.77-1.25) for women, 1.02 (0.84-1.23) for men; saturated fat: 0.98 (0.71-1.33) for women and 1.05 (0.83-1.34) for men. Inverse associations between unsaturated fat intake and cardiovascular event risk were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: In relation to risks of cardiovascular events, our results do not suggest any benefit from a limited total or saturated fat intake, nor from relatively high intake of unsaturated fat.
PubMed ID
17925631 View in PubMed
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Classification of adults suffering from typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: contribution of latent class analysis in a European observational study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261845
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:112
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Stanislas Bruley des Varannes
Renzo Cestari
Liudmila Usova
Konstantinos Triantafyllou
Angel Alvarez Sanchez
Sofia Keim
Paul Bergmans
Silvia Marelli
Esther Grahl
Philippe Ducrotté
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:112
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Diet, Fat-Restricted - statistics & numerical data
Female
France - epidemiology
Gastroesophageal Reflux - classification - epidemiology - physiopathology
Greece - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertriglyceridemia - epidemiology
Italy - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Russia - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Spain - epidemiology
Waist Circumference
Abstract
As illustrated by the Montreal classification, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is much more than heartburn and patients constitute a heterogeneous group. Understanding if links exist between patients' characteristics and GERD symptoms, and classify subjects based on symptom-profile could help to better understand, diagnose, and treat GERD. The aim of this study was to identify distinct classes of GERD patients according to symptom profiles, using a specific statistical tool: Latent class analysis.
An observational single-visit study was conducted in 5 European countries in 7700 adults with typical symptoms. A latent class analysis was performed to identify "latent classes" and was applied to 12 indicator symptoms.
On 7434 subjects with non-missing indicators, latent class analysis yielded 5 latent classes. Class 1 grouped the highest severity of typical GERD symptoms during day and night, more digestive and non-digestive GERD symptoms, and bad sleep quality. Class 3 represented less frequent and less severe digestive and non-digestive GERD symptoms, and better sleep quality than in class 1. In class 2, only typical GERD symptoms at night occurred. Classes 4 and 5 represented daytime and nighttime regurgitation. In class 4, heartburn was also identified and more atypical digestive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression showed that country, age, sex, smoking, alcohol use, low-fat diet, waist circumference, recent weight gain (>5 kg), elevated triglycerides, metabolic syndrome, and medical GERD treatment had a significant effect on latent classes.
Latent class analysis classified GERD patients based on symptom profiles which related to patients' characteristics. Although further studies considering these proposed classes have to be conducted to determine the reproducibility of this classification, this new tool might contribute in better management and follow-up of patients with GERD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24969728 View in PubMed
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Clinical practice guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179393
Source
Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2004;14(2):7-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Natalie Nichols
Author Affiliation
natalie.nichols@cdha.nshealth.ca
Source
Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2004;14(2):7-10
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Drug Monitoring - methods - standards
Humans
Hyperlipidemias - blood - complications - diagnosis - therapy
Hypolipidemic Agents - therapeutic use
Life Style
Mass Screening - methods - standards
Patient Selection
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Risk Assessment - methods - standards
Abstract
The causal relationship between dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis is well-documented. Screening and appropriate management of dyslipidemia by health care providers is imperative in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. In response to the release of new research data, clinical practice guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia in Canada have recently been updated. This article will provide an overview of the recommendations for screening, risk assessment, and target lipid values. Dietary and lifestyle interventions will be discussed in addition to pharmacotherapy as management strategies for achieving therapeutic lipid targets.
PubMed ID
15230023 View in PubMed
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79 records – page 1 of 8.