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Adolescents' low-carbohydrate-density diets are related to poorer dietary intakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172239
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Nov;105(11):1783-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
Linda S Greene-Finestone
M Karen Campbell
Susan E Evers
Iris A Gutmanis
Author Affiliation
Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Linda_Greene-Finestone@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Nov;105(11):1783-8
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Child
Cluster analysis
Confidence Intervals
Diet - standards
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - standards
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Exercise - physiology
Female
Health Behavior
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Micronutrients - administration & dosage
Nutritive Value
Obesity
Odds Ratio
Ontario
Questionnaires
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
This study was undertaken to assess how low-carbohydrate-density diets below the acceptable macronutrient distribution range relate to food and micronutrient intake and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. The multistage stratified cluster design in the 1990 Ontario Health Survey was used. There were 5,194 subjects, 12 to 18 years of age, in sampled households. Dietary data were collected via a food frequency questionnaire. Low-carbohydrate-density diets were consumed by 27.6% of males and 24.1% of females. Low-carbohydrate-density diets were related (P
PubMed ID
16256764 View in PubMed
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Are Food Advertisements Promoting More Unhealthy Foods and Beverages over Time? Evidence from Three Swedish Food Magazines, 1995-2014.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279943
Source
Ecol Food Nutr. 2017 Jan-Feb;56(1):45-61
Publication Type
Article
Author
Andreas Håkansson
Source
Ecol Food Nutr. 2017 Jan-Feb;56(1):45-61
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Advertising as Topic - trends
Alcoholic Beverages - adverse effects - economics
Beverages - adverse effects - economics
Bread - adverse effects - economics
Consumer Behavior - economics
Dairy Products - adverse effects - economics
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - economics - ethnology
Food - adverse effects - economics
Food Preferences - ethnology
Fruit and Vegetable Juices - adverse effects - economics
Health Promotion - economics - trends
Health Transition
Healthy Diet - economics - trends
Humans
Nutritive Value
Periodicals as Topic - economics
Sweden
Abstract
Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.
PubMed ID
27880047 View in PubMed
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Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123566
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ingegerd Johansson
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Stegmayr
Kurt Boman
Göran Hallmans
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. ingegerd.johansson@odont.umu.se
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - trends
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - adverse effects
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Diet, Reducing - adverse effects - trends
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Mass Media - trends
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Sweden
Weight Gain
Abstract
In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden.
Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI.
Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking.
Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986-1992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with introduction of a positive media support for low carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diet. The decrease and following increase in cholesterol levels occurred simultaneously with the time trends in food selection, whereas a constant increase in BMI remained unaltered. These changes in risk factors may have important effects on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Notes
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PubMed ID
22686621 View in PubMed
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Blood glucose, diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging among dementia-free older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263832
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Apr;70(4):471-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Shyam Seetharaman
Ross Andel
Cathy McEvoy
Anna K Dahl Aslan
Deborah Finkel
Nancy L Pedersen
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Apr;70(4):471-9
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aging - psychology
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cognition
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage - metabolism
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Glycemic Index
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mild Cognitive Impairment - blood - etiology - prevention & control
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years.
Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged =50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load.
High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability.
Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline.
PubMed ID
25149688 View in PubMed
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Carbohydrate counting accuracy and blood glucose variability in adults with type 1 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119041
Source
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Jan;99(1):19-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
A S Brazeau
H. Mircescu
K. Desjardins
C. Leroux
I. Strychar
J M Ekoé
R. Rabasa-Lhoret
Author Affiliation
Montreal Institute for Clinical Research (IRCM), Montreal, QC, Canada. anne-sophie.brazeau@ircm.qc.ca
Source
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Jan;99(1):19-23
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - analysis
Combined Modality Therapy
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - diet therapy - drug therapy
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
Hyperglycemia - prevention & control
Hypoglycemia - prevention & control
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Insulin - therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
Monitoring, Ambulatory
Patient compliance
Patient Education as Topic
Quebec
Abstract
Carbohydrate counting is an established approach used by patients with type 1 diabetes to improve their glycemic control. The aims of this study were to evaluate, in real life conditions, the accuracy of meal carbohydrate estimate and its impact on glycemic variability.
In this cross-sectional study, we observed the ability of 50 adults (48% women) with type 1 diabetes (age: 42.7±11.1 years); diabetes duration: 21.4±12.7 years; HbA1c: 7.2±1.2% (60±10 mmol/mol) to accurately estimate carbohydrates by analyzing 72-h food records and their corresponding 72-h blood glucose excursions using a continuous glucose monitor.
The mean meal carbohydrate difference, between the patients' estimates and those assessed by a dietitian using a computerized analysis program, was 15.4±7.8 g or 20.9±9.7% of the total CHO content per meal (72.4±34.7 g per meal). Sixty-three percent of the 448 meals analyzed were underestimated. Greater differences in CHO's estimates predicted higher glycemic variability, as measured by the MAGE index and glucose standard deviation, and decreased time with glucose values between 4 and 10 mmol/L (R²=0.110, 0.114 and 0.110, respectively; P
PubMed ID
23146371 View in PubMed
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Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns - A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282321
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Oct;150:59-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Per Sjogren
Rachel Montse
Erik Lampa
Samira Salihovic
Bert van Bavel
Lars Lind
P Monica Lind
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Oct;150:59-65
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
Diet, Mediterranean
Dietary Proteins - analysis
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Prospective Studies
Sweden
Abstract
In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking.
To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population.
Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern.
The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA.
All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds.
PubMed ID
27239709 View in PubMed
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Copenhagen study of overweight patients with coronary artery disease undergoing low energy diet or interval training: the randomized CUT-IT trial protocol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106071
Source
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2013;13:106
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Lene Rørholm Pedersen
Rasmus Huan Olsen
Marianne Frederiksen
Arne Astrup
Elizaveta Chabanova
Philip Hasbak
Jens Juul Holst
Andreas Kjær
John W Newman
Rosemary Walzem
Ulrik Wisløff
Ahmad Sajadieh
Steen Bendix Haugaard
Eva Prescott
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. lrpedersen@gmail.com.
Source
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2013;13:106
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Coronary Artery Disease - diagnosis - diet therapy - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - methods
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Overweight - diagnosis - diet therapy - epidemiology
Weight Loss - physiology
Abstract
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accountable for more than 7 million deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In a European population 80% of patients diagnosed with CAD are overweight and 31% are obese. Physical inactivity and overweight are major risk factors in CAD, thus central strategies in secondary prevention are increased physical activity and weight loss.
In a randomized controlled trial 70 participants with stable CAD, age 45-75, body mass index 28-40 kg/m2 and no diabetes are randomized (1:1) to 12 weeks of intensive exercise or weight loss both succeeded by a 40-week follow-up. The exercise protocol consist of supervised aerobic interval training (AIT) at 85-90% of VO2peak 3 times weekly for 12 weeks followed by supervised AIT twice weekly for 40 weeks. In the weight loss arm dieticians instruct the participants in a low energy diet (800-1000 kcal/day) for 12 weeks, followed by 40 weeks of weight maintenance combined with supervised AIT twice weekly. The primary endpoint of the study is change in coronary flow reserve after the first 12 weeks' intervention. Secondary endpoints include cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory and anthropometric measures.
The study will compare the short and long-term effects of a protocol consisting of AIT alone or a rapid weight loss followed by AIT. Additionally, it will provide new insight in mechanisms behind the benefits of exercise and weight loss. We wish to contribute to the creation of effective secondary prevention and sustainable rehabilitation strategies in the large population of overweight and obese patients diagnosed with CAD.
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01724567.
PubMed ID
24252596 View in PubMed
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Danish study of a modified Atkins diet for medically intractable epilepsy in children: can we achieve the same results as with the classical ketogenic diet?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138897
Source
Seizure. 2011 Mar;20(2):151-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Maria J Miranda
Mette Mortensen
Jane H Povlsen
Helle Nielsen
Sándor Beniczky
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Danish Epilepsy Centre, Filadelfia, Dianalund, Denmark. mamr@filadelfia.dk
Source
Seizure. 2011 Mar;20(2):151-5
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - methods
Epilepsy - complications - diet therapy
Female
Humans
Infant
Ketogenic Diet
Male
Quality of Life
Seizures - diet therapy - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a less restrictive variety of the classical ketogenic diet (KD), used for treating patients with medically resistant epilepsy. There are only few reports comparing the two types of diets in terms of seizure reduction and tolerability. We compared the effect of a MAD evaluated prospectively on 33 consecutive children with medically resistant epilepsy, with a group of 50 patients, previously treated with KD. Patients who had >50% seizure reduction were considered responders. After 3 months on the MAD, 17 patients (52%) were responders, including 14 (42%) who had >90% seizure reduction. After 6 months, 13 patients (39%) were responders. Seventeen patients (52%) remained on the MAD at least 12 months with excellent overall tolerance and compliance, including 9 patients (27%) who were responders, 4 of them (12%) having >90% seizure reduction. Although there was a trend for higher incidence of responders in the KD group, this failed to reach the level of significance: after 6 months 39% on MAD and 60% on KD were responders. However, this trend was not observed when the two groups were adjusted for difference in age (patients in the MAD group were older than the KD group). In conclusion, our experience suggests that the MAD is similarly effective as the KD in reducing seizure frequency in children with medically resistant epilepsy.
PubMed ID
21126887 View in PubMed
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Dietary patterns and cognitive dysfunction in a 12-year follow-up study of 70 year old men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269475
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(1):109-19
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Erika Olsson
Brita Karlström
Lena Kilander
Liisa Byberg
Tommy Cederholm
Per Sjögren
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(1):109-19
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cognition Disorders - blood - epidemiology
Dementia - blood - epidemiology
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
Diet, Mediterranean
Energy intake
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Adherence to dietary patterns has been associated with cognitive decline and dementia, but studies are inconsistent.
Dietary patterns, i.e., WHO recommendations (Healthy Diet Indicator), a Mediterranean-like diet (modified Mediterranean Diet Score, mMDS), and a low carbohydrate high protein diet (LCHP), were related to incident cognitive dysfunction, as indicated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), all-type dementia, and all-type cognitive impairment, in a cohort of 1,138 elderly Swedish men.
Dietary patterns were derived from 7-day records. Risk relations were calculated by Cox and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed in a subpopulation (n = 564) with energy intake according to the Goldberg cut-off.
During a mean follow-up of 12 years, 84, 143, and 198 men developed AD, all-type dementia, and all-type cognitive impairment, respectively. There was no association between Healthy Diet Indicator and any of the outcomes. Hazard ratios associated with 1 standard deviation (SD) increment in the LCHP score were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.43) for AD and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.37) for all-type dementia. mMDS was not associated with dementia diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR)/1 SD increase for mMDS and all-type cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.05). In the subpopulation OR for mMDS and all-type cognitive impairment was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.89).
We found no strong associations with development of cognitive dysfunction for any of the dietary patterns investigated. However, there was a potentially beneficial association for a Mediterranean-like diet on the development of cognitive dysfunction in the subpopulation.
PubMed ID
25062901 View in PubMed
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Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk: report from the population based ULSAM cohort study of Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105741
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):77-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Erika Ax
Hans Garmo
Birgitta Grundmark
Anna Bill-Axelson
Lars Holmberg
Wulf Becker
Björn Zethelius
Tommy Cederholm
Per Sjögren
Author Affiliation
a Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism , Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):77-87
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cohort Studies
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
Diet, Mediterranean
Diet, Protein-Restricted
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Energy intake
European Continental Ancestry Group
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Motor Activity
Nutrition Assessment
Patient compliance
Proportional Hazards Models
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
Dietary pattern analyses have increased the possibilities to detect associations between diet and disease. However, studies on dietary pattern and prostate cancer are scarce. Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively. Prostate cancer risk was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression (median follow-up 13 years) and competing risk of death was considered. There were no associations between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (n = 133) in the whole study population. Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participants (P-for-trend 0.04). Risk relations were not attributable to competing risk of death. In this study, a LCHP diet was associated with lower prostate cancer incidence. Relations emerged in adequate reporters, underscoring the importance of high-quality dietary data.
PubMed ID
24325263 View in PubMed
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32 records – page 1 of 4.