It was attempted to assess the incidence of thyroid diseases in Polish children born between 1980-1986, who at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster were 0-6 years old, or whose mothers were in the third trimester of pregnancy. 3071 children have been examined, 1772 girls and 1299 boys. The following were assessed in each child: the health status, the developmental level, the thyroid ultrasound examination, and the level of TSH, FT4, antithyroid antibodies ATM and ATGL in the blood serum. Disorders in thyroid morphology (abnormal echogenicity) have been found in 462 children (15%), almost twice as much in girls than in boys. Goiter has been recognized in 4.6% of all children, an abnormal echogenity in 5.4% and focal changes in 4.8%. 3.9% of children have been found to have a high level of ATM antibodies, and 8.7%--a high level of ATGL antibodies. Among 6 children, who had thyroidectomy, 2 children have been diagnosed to have ca papillary and 4 children--adenoma.
In a group of 1111 school children aged 12 years from two selected town in Poland (Rzeszów and Ostroleka) a comparative study of three BCG vaccines was performed, the Polish, the Danish, and the Japanese. Tests for viability of the vaccines gave the following results: for the Polish vaccine 17680000 culturable particles in 1 mg; the Danish--12060000, and the Japanese--43540000 respectively Children eligible for vaccination were selected on the basis of prevaccination tuberculin testing with 2 TU tuberculin RT-23 with Tween 80. All the three vaccines gave high level of postvaccination tuberculin reactions measured after 10 weeks. In more than 30% of children these reactions were higher than 15 mm. The mean postvaccination reactions after the Polish vaccine was 14.2 mm (s.d.3.7), after the Danish--13.7 mm (s.d.3.9), and after the Japanese 14.9 mm(s.d.3.0). The difference between the Danish and the Japanese vaccines was statistically significant, but between the Polish and the other two vaccines was not. It was also formed that children with larger postvaccination tuberculin indurations had larger diameter of preview BCG scars.
BACKGROUND: The incidence of allergy induced by fragrances, leading mostly to the development of contact dermatitis and urticaria chronica, has been growing in a large number of countries. In general, allergy is of non-occupational nature, however, it can also have traits of occupational exposure. The fragrance mix is used in screening for allergy to aromas, but it frequently produces false positive or false negative results of the test. The aim of the study was to assess whether the fragrance mix is suitable for detecting allergy to aromas in persons with suspected occupational allergy and also to analyze types of allergy to separate fragrances. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a group of 1937 patients diagnosed in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódz, the incidence of allergy to fragrance mix was assessed. They underwent dermatological examinations and tests with use of the European standard kit (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Malmö, Sweden) in the years 2000-2005. In addition, in the group of patients with positive tests, the type of allergy to individual aromas was analyzed using fragrance series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Malmö, Sweden). RESULTS: The positive reaction to fragrance mix was found in 99 (5.1%) patients (women--5.2% and men--4.9%). In 57.6% of patients, allergy to balsam of Peru was also observed. Allergy to at least one aroma was diagnosed in 82 (72%) persons tested with an expanded fragrance series. In the remaining 23 (28%) patients, patch tests proved to be false positive. In the latter group, 17 patients showed negative results of the test to balsam of Peru. In the study group, 65% of patients reacted to 1, 2 or 3 and 36% to more aromas. The following allergens sensitized most frequently: cynnamic alcohol, hydroxycitronellal, cinnamic aldehyde, isoeugenol, eugenol, Ylang-Ylang oil, oakmoss absolute, and jasmine. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 69.7%, urticaria chronica in 5.1% of patients, atopic dermatitis in 4%, whereas in 21.2% no skin lesions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study confirmed observations of other authors that the usefulness of fragrance mix in the diagnosis of allergy to aromas is limited (a high number of false positive results of skin tests). We noticed that a combined reaction to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru is helpful in diagnosis in persons whom a complete allergic diagnosis cannot be performed. We also found less frequent hypersensitivity to oakmoss absolute and more frequent to cinnamic aldehyde and alcohol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol in Lódz than in studies reported by other authors.
BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to latex is a relatively new problem that gives rise to much controversy among researchers. The aim of the study was to develop a study model of contact allergy induced by latex proteins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study covered 60 health care workers who had reported decreased tolerance of rubber gloves. They were subjected to routine dermatological examinations, patch tests to a standard set of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnosis, Sweden), expanded to include high ammoniac latex, and prick tests with latex and common inhalatory allergens. In addition, total and latex specific IgE antibodies were determined. RESULTS: Of the total group, contact allergy to latex was found in 5 persons, including 3 persons with concurrent immediate reaction to latex, and 2 persons with allergy of the isolated nature. Only in 1 person coexistent late allergy to latex and rubber accelerator of the thiurams group were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Path tests with 30% ammoniac latex seem to be a useful diagnostic method in the detection of contact allergy to latex. In case of doubtful reactions, the use of lower allergen concentrations is recommended.
Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an abnormal connection between the internal carotid artery, external one or their meningeal branches and the sinus cavernous. It can be the spontaneous or post-traumatic pathology. The main clinical syndrome is Dandy's triad: pulsating exophthalmia, chemosis, bruit in the region of orbit. These syndromes appear in the case of the most frequent direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (type-A in Barrow classification). Indirect carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas are significantly more uncommon and the symptoms can be atypical and less intensive. It makes difficulties in establishing the right diagnosis. The case report concerns the occurrence of bilateral carotid-cavernous sinus fistula, supplying by numerous arteries, with atypical clinical picture.
[Effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis and frequency of thyroid enlargement (thyroid goiter) and clinical diagnosis of thyroid diseases in inhabitants of the Szczecin region after the Czernobyl accident]
The study, supported by program MZ-XVII, was carried on 4567 inhabitants of the area of Szczecin (2350 females and 2217 males). The population was chosen randomly, according to a simple drawing scheme. All subjects were clinically examined using standardised questionnaires. In 3468 persons (including 1807 girls and women, 1661 boys and men) apart form clinical examination, the assessment of thyrotropin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum and frequency of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antithyroid membrane antibodies were evaluated. The data indicate that 94% of children in Szczecin's region received the prophylactic dose of iodine, mostly between the 1st and the 5th of May 1986. Only 17% of the adults received iodine. The most common preparation was Lugol solution given in a single dose. Among all persons who received iodine, only in 5% of subjects the side effects were noted (mostly in children), including symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, abdomen pain) and occasionally intrathyroid side effects (thyroid pains). In examined population the high frequency of thyroid enlargement, mainly in women (up to 43-44% at the age group 30-50 years) was found. The frequency of clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was higher in women than in man (most often the diffuse goiter, rarely the nodular goiter). The frequency of thyroid enlargement and clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was not dependent on prophylactic iodine intake. The iodine prophylaxis did not influence on thyroid hormones and TSH serum levels and on frequency of antithyroid antibodies.
Epidemiological foundation included: aim of studies, knowledge about epidemiology of thyroid disorders in Poland, evaluation of radioiodine dose accumulated in thyroids of inhabitants of different age living in different par of Poland, information about relative diet iodine deficiency in different parts of Poland and identification of research teams (manpower) capable to carry on population studies. The final identification of epidemiological foundation was proceeded by pilot studies performed in 4 different regions of Poland. Finally it was decided that population studies would be performed in so called Regions of 6 different University Medical Schools (Bialystok, KrakÃ³w, LÃ³dz, Poznan, Szczecin, Wroclaw). The sample will be selected randomly on the base of information from the voting lists (random selection of vovoidoship, then towns and villages, then streets and number of houses, then number of flats. All living in selected flat or house during Czernobyl accident and born between January 1974 and December 1985 (children) and between January 1926 and December 1973 (adults) will be considered "the sample". In all cases the sample will be examined by means of unified questionnaire and protocol of medical and laboratory examination. The same kits (of the same producers) will be used to evaluate serum TSH, T4, T3 and thyroid autoantibodies. The data obtained will be evaluated by unified computerized system. Separate studies involved the sample of newborns exposed to radioiodine during last trimester of pregnancy, found to be euthyroid and given potassium iodide in first days of life. Separate system was also used to investigate effect of radioiodine and of prophylactic dose of potassium iodide in those with past history of thyroid disorders.