1. Dmo1 (Diabetes Mellitus OLETF type I) is a major quantitative trait locus for dyslipidaemia, obesity and diabetes phenotypes of male Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. 2. Our congenic lines, produced by transferring Dmo1 chromosomal segments from the non-diabetic Brown Norway (BN) rat into the OLETF strain, have confirmed the strong, wide-range therapeutic effects of Dmo1 on dyslipidaemia, obesity and diabetes in the fourth (BC4) and fifth (BC5) generations of congenic animals. Analysis of a relatively small number of BC5 rats (n = 71) suggested that the critical Dmo1 interval lies within a
We investigated whether mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplogroups and maternal family history of diabetes mellitus were associated with vascular diabetes mellitus complications in a population-based cohort of 299 Finnish diabetes mellitus patients with disease onset in young adult age. We found that haplogroup U was more prevalent among patients with no vascular diabetes mellitus complications than among those with at least one complication (p?=?0.038). Haplogroup U was also more prevalent among the patients who reported maternal family history of diabetes mellitus than among those who did not (p?=?0.0013). Furthermore, haplogroup U was more prevalent among patients with maternal family history of diabetes mellitus but no vascular diabetes mellitus complications than among those with at least one vascular diabetes mellitus complication but no maternal family history of diabetes mellitus (p?=?0.0003 for difference). These findings suggest that different mtDNA-related factors may influence the risk of diabetes mellitus per se and the risk of vascular diabetes mellitus complications. Further studies are, however, warranted to replicate and elaborate on these results.
BACKGROUND: Causes of death of patients with the 3243A>G mutation have been described in case reports or case series with a limited number of subjects. METHODS: Eighty-two maternally related sibships of 11 families with 3243A>G were included in this survey. The lifespan of each subject in these families was compared with the life expectancy of the general population, adjusted with respect to year of birth and gender. Causes of death were determined among 3243A>G carriers and their first-degree maternal relatives. RESULTS: We identified 123 deceased subjects in families with 3243A>G and found an excess mortality during the early years of life and young adulthood. The median age at death for 3243A>G carriers and their first-degree maternal relatives was significantly lower than that of the general population. Neurological and cardiovascular diseases made up one-third of the causes of death. Sudden and unexpected death was not uncommon in patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: 3243A>G carriers and their first-degree maternal relatives died younger than was predicted by their life expectancy at birth. Neurological disease was the most common cause of death.
OBJECTIVE: While maternal diabetes is a known risk factor for perinatal complications, there is little data on long-term intellectual outcome in offspring. We compare the rejection rate and cognitive functioning of military conscripts according to maternal diabetes status during pregnancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified a cohort of Danish male offspring of diabetic mothers born between 1976 and 1984 and followed this cohort together with population-based control subjects to military conscription. The main outcome was army rejection rate and cognitive function measured with a validated intelligence test. RESULTS: The army rejection rate was 52.5% among 282 men whose mothers had diabetes during pregnancy and 45.4% among 870 control subjects (risk difference 7.3 [95% CI 0.6-14.0]). Mean cognitive scores were 41.4 units (95% CI 40.2-42.6) in diabetes-exposed conscripts and 42.7 units (42.0-43.4) in control subjects. Stratification by gestational age, Apgar score, and White's class (A-F) did not change the associations. In a subgroup analysis using available data on A1C levels during pregnancy, this variable was inversely associated with cognitive functioning. In men with maternal A1C
Genetic factors appear to contribute to the severity and progression of diabetic retinopathy. We assessed the associations of the C807T and Glu505Lys variants of the glycoprotein Ia (alpha(2) integrin) subunit of the platelet/endothelial collagen receptor and risk of retinopathy in a population-based survey of 288 diabetic patients in one Swedish community. Neither variant was associated with retinopathy risk overall. However, the 807T variant was associated with increased risk of severe retinopathy, and the association was modified by diabetes duration. Among patients with diabetes of longer duration (>/=25 years), the 807T variant was strongly associated with risk of severe retinopathy (odds ratio 7.49, 95% confidence interval 1.75 to 32.1). There was no association between the 807T variant and risk of severe retinopathy among patients with diabetes duration
The metabolically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-(OH)2D3, is involved in the regulation of insulin level. Because the serum group-specific component (Gc) binds vitamin D, it is worth knowing whether differences in basal insulin levels are associated with Gc genotype. Such differences would warrant further investigation to clarify whether selection maintains Gc polymorphism through differential risk of Gc genotypes to diseases that involve insulin. Blood samples were collected in a study designed to address issues in the etiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Amerindians. Fasting insulin levels and Gc genotype (including subtypes of Gc1) were determined for 144 adult Dogrib Indians of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Hierarchical regression of log10 transformed fasting insulin on age and adiposity within each sex showed that age had no effect on insulin level, but adiposity as measured by the body mass index (BMI) had a very highly significant effect. Analysis of covariance of log10 fasting insulin by sex, by Gc genotype and with adjustment for the effects of the covariate, BMI, was very highly significant. All interaction terms in the model were nonsignificant. The only variable that had a significant effect after adjustment for the BMI was Gc genotype (F4,133 = 3.71; P = 0.007). Covariance analysis was repeated on a subset of the sample (124 people). The reduced data set excluded all individuals who had, on at least one occasion, abnormal response to oral glucose challenge [impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM]). Again, after correction for the effects of the BMI, only Gc genotype had a significant effect on fasting insulin level (F4,113 = 2.61; P = 0.040). Homozygotes for Gc 1F-1F had the lowest measures of fasting insulin.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The transcription factor FOXC2 plays a key role in adipocyte differentiation and the FOXC2 gene is a candidate gene for Type 2 diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia. We investigated whether the FOXC2 -512C>T promoter variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes or its intermediary phenotypes in glucose tolerant subjects. METHODS: The variant was genotyped using PCR-RFLP in 705 unrelated Type 2 diabetic patients, 505 unrelated glucose-tolerant control subjects and 219 glucose-tolerant offspring of Type 2 diabetic probands. RESULTS: The frequency of the T-allele was 58% (95% CI 56-61%) and 59% (56-62%) among the Type 2 diabetic patients and the unrelated glucose-tolerant control subjects, respectively ( p=0.6). Among the glucose-tolerant subjects, the T-allele carriers had higher fasting serum triglyceride ( p=0.03), fasting serum C-peptide concentrations ( p=0.009) and insulinogenic index ( p=0.04). Furthermore, in glucose-tolerant women, the waist-to-hip ratio was significantly higher in carriers of the T-allele. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that the FOXC2 -512C>T variant is not associated with Type 2 diabetes. However, among glucose-tolerant subjects the variant is associated with hypertriglyceridaemia and increased fasting serum C-peptide.
Blood cells of selected patients from a large Norwegian family with maternally transmitted diabetes mellitus, hearing loss and muscular dysfunction were screened for possible A3243G mutation tRNA(Leu (UUR)) in mitochondrial DNA. We selected 7 patients from 3 of the 4 generations of the family and 10 unrelated healthy control subjects for mutation analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and both manual and automated DNA sequencing. The A3243G mutation was found in peripheral blood cells of all 7 patients, but in none of the controls. The mutation was in the form of heteroplasmy and the amount of mutant DNA was found to be between 10% and 35% of total mtDNA in individual patients. This is the first report of a Norwegian family with maternally inherited diabetes and hearing loss carrying the A3243G mutation in mitochondrial DNA.
Twin studies have estimated the heritability of longevity to be approximately 20-30 %. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of determinants of morbidity, but so far, no new polymorphisms have been discovered to be associated with longevity per se in GWAS. We aim to determine whether the genetic architecture of mortality can be explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with common traits and diseases related to mortality. By extensive quality control of published GWAS we created a genetic score from 707 common SNPs associated with 125 diseases or risk factors related with overall mortality. We prospectively studied the association of the genetic score with: (1) time-to-death; (2) incidence of the first of nine major diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, diabetes, dementia, lung, breast, colon and prostate cancers) in two population-based cohorts of Dutch and Swedish individuals (N = 15,039; age range 47-99 years). During a median follow-up of 6.3 years (max 22.2 years), we observed 4,318 deaths and 2,132 incident disease events. The genetic score was significantly associated with time-to-death [hazard ratio (HR) per added risk allele = 1.003, P value = 0.006; HR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 1.103]. The association between the genetic score and incidence of major diseases was stronger (HR per added risk allele = 1.004, P value = 0.002; HR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 1.160). Associations were stronger for individuals dying at older ages. Our findings are compatible with the view of mortality as a complex and highly polygenetic trait, not easily explainable by common genetic variants related to diseases and physiological traits.