Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review of the modern literature is devoted to the problem of regarding the adipose tissue as not only a repository of energy supplies but an active endocrine organ as well whose activity exerts a definite effect on the function of many bodily systems. Specific emphasis is directed toward aspects of the function of certain secretory proteins involved in the process of the arterial pressure regulation and/or organs injuring.
Parental history of diabetes and specific gene variants are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but the extent to which these factors are associated is unknown.
We examined the association between parental history of diabetes and a type 2 diabetes genetic risk score (GRS) in two cohort studies from Finland (population-based PPP-Botnia study) and the US (family-based Framingham Offspring Study).
Mean (95% CI) GRS increased from 16.8 (16.8-16.9) to 16.9 (16.8-17.1) to 17.1 (16.8-17.4) among PPP-Botnia participants with 0, 1, and 2 parents with diabetes, respectively (p(trend)=0.03). The trend was similar among Framingham Offspring but was not statistically significant (p=0.07). The meta-analyzed p value for trend from the two studies was 0.005.
The very modest associations reported above suggest that the increased risk of diabetes in offspring of parents with diabetes is largely the result of shared environmental/lifestyle factors and/or hitherto unknown genetic factors.
The authors investigated the association between daily variations in ozone and cause-specific mortality. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, provided daily mean levels of ozone, particles, and other gaseous pollutants. Information on the date and underlying cause of death was obtained for residents of Montreal who died in the city between 1984 and 1993. The authors regressed the logarithm of daily counts of cause-specific mortality on mean levels of ozone, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, and weather variables. The effect of ozone on mortality was generally higher in the warm season and among persons aged 65 years or over. For an increase in the 3-day running mean concentration of ozone of 21.3 microg/m(3), the percentage of increase in daily deaths in the warm season was the following: nonaccidental deaths, 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 5.0); cancer, 3.9% (95% CI: 1.0, 6.91); cardiovascular diseases, 2.5% (95% CI: 0.2, 5.0); and respiratory diseases, 6.6% (95% CI: 1.8, 11.8). These results were independent of the effects of other pollutants and were consistent with a log-linear response function.
The transition from regular use of cyclosporine to the newer calcineurin-inhibitors, such as tacrolimus, has been suggested as a contributing factor to the "era effect" of worsening outcomes of post-transplant HCV recurrence. This retrospective medical chart review of 458 patients was undertaken to evaluate the role of immunosuppressant choice (cyclosporine vs. tacrolimus) in determining virologic response and clinical outcomes of post-liver transplant HCV infection recurrence. Our results showed that patients undergoing interferon-based treatment taking cyclosporine have significantly better odds (OR: 2.59, P = 0.043) of presenting a sustained viral response (66.7%) compared to tacrolimus (52.8%). This did not result in a significant effect on post-liver transplantation clinical events including HCV-related deaths, graft loss, fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma or graft rejection. Other variables, which showed a significant relationship with the achievement of sustained viral response included donor age (OR 0.96, P = 0.001) and HCV genotype 1 infection (OR 0.05, P
Overfeeding and overeating in families are traditions that are often transferred from generation to generation. Irrespective of these family traditions, food availability might lead to overfeeding, in its turn leading to metabolic adaptations. Apart from selection, could these adaptations to the social environment have transgenerational effects? This study will attempt to answer the following question: Can overeating during a child's slow growth period (SGP), before their prepubertal peak in growth velocity influence descendants' risk of death from cardiovascular disease and diabetes? Data were collected by following three cohorts born in 1890, 1905 and 1920 in Overkalix parish in northern Sweden up until death or 1995. The parents' or grandparents' access to food during their SGP was determined by referring to historical data on harvests and food prices, records of local community meetings and general historical facts. If food was not readily available during the father's slow growth period, then cardiovascular disease mortality of the proband was low. Diabetes mortality increased if the paternal grandfather was exposed to a surfeit of food during his slow growth period. (Odds Ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.33-12.93, P=0.01). Selection bias seemed to be unlikely. A nutrition-linked mechanism through the male line seems to have influenced the risk for cardiovascular and diabetes mellitus mortality.
Fish oil is rich in the long chain omega-3 (omega-3) polyinsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), Pioneering studies of Dyerberg and Bang primarily originate interests in this way. The low incidence of acute myocardial infarction they verified within the Greenland Eskimos suggested that a high dietary omega-3 PUFA intake due to marine food might protect against coronary heart disease. They showed that the Eskimos had a beneficial lipid pattern and that their balance between pro-aggregatory thromboxanes and anti-aggregatory prostacyclins was shifted towards an anti-thrombotic state. The two major omega-3 fatty acids are decosapentaenoic acid (EPA C 20:5, omega 3), with five double bonds, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA C 22:6, omega 3), with six double bonds. These fatty acids' significant effects include reduction of plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein levels as well as of platelets thrombogenicity in the microcirculation, which is due to effects on the mediators production derived from arachidonic acid (prostaglandins and leucotrienes), meddling in inflammatory and immune cell function, retarded atherosclerosis development. Experimental studies of atherogenesis and arterial thrombogenesis support the hypothesis that dietary omega-3 PUFA intake may play a leading role in primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.
The review analyzes the mechanisms of hormonal regulation of the exchange of Ca ions in the organisms and the role of changes in their extra- and intracellular balance in the development of diabetes mellitus. Recent data about changes in intracellular Ca homeostasis which lead to alterations in insulin secretion are presented. A conclusion is made about tight connections of disturbances in hormonal and calcium homeostasis in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications.
Chronic pancreatitis is a serious disease with many yet unsolved problems, e.g. pathogenesis, cause of pain and treatment. Danish gastroenterologists have for many years participated actively in the investigation of the disease and have produced many internationally recognized results, especially regarding secretion physiology and pathophysiology, epidemiology, cause of pain and characterization of the secondary diabetes mellitus. In the past 25 years more than 60 Danish papers about chronic pancreatitis have been published in international, reviewed journals. Furthermore six theses on subjects related to chronic pancreatitis have been produced. In this article the Danish contribution to the literature on chronic pancreatitis during the past 25 years is reviewed.
We report the clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics of 13 hemochromatosis patients from Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean in whom the first symptoms appeared before age 30. Although the mean age at onset of the first symptoms was 21. 5 years, their mean age at diagnosis was 23.8 years; the diagnosis was particularly delayed among women. Seventy-seven percent of the patients had hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and 69% heart failure and/or cardiac arrhythmias. Genetic analysis of the HFE gene revealed heterozygosity for the C282Y mutation in 2 patients and for the S65C mutation in 2 others and homozygosity for the H63D mutation in 1 patient. The remaining 8 patients had no identified mutation in the HFE gene, although sequencing of all seven codons and intron-exon junctions was performed (5 patients). All 13 patients fulfill the clinical criteria of juvenile hemochromatosis and represent the largest cluster thus far reported.