We describe the 40-year weight history and adult morbidity and mortality in a cohort of 504 overweight children, aged 2 months to 16 years, who were admitted for investigation of their overweight to four children's hospitals in Stockholm between 1921 and 1947. Follow-up information was gathered by questionnaire at 10-year intervals, most recently in 1980-1983 (n = 458), on weight history (based on the body mass index (BMI = kg/m2)), as well as prevalence of cardiovascular disease (n = 143), diabetes (n = 39), and cancer (all types (n = 20)), reported during the 40 years of follow-up, and mortality from all causes (n = 55), determined from death certificate. The sample of overweight children remained overweight as adults; after age 55 years, the BMI began to decline for both genders. Female subjects were heavier than their male counterparts from postpuberty onward. Subjects who died by the 40-year follow-up and those reporting cardiovascular disease were significantly (P
The results refer to a 12-year longitudinal population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Correlations were studied between initial adipose tissue amount and adipose tissue distribution on the one hand and incidence of diabetes and change in serum blood glucose concentration on the other. Body mass index, sum of two skinfolds and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were significantly associated with incidence of diabetes. The waist-to-hip ratio was also positively associated with an increase of serum glucose concentration in the fasting state during the followup period. The significant correlations remained in multivariate analysis and were independent of age, initial smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, intake of antihypertensive drugs and serum cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose concentrations. The correlations between the separate anthropometric variables and incidence of diabetes remained when the other anthropometric variables were considered as background factors. The distribution of fat to the abdominal region as well as the total amount of fat per se seem to be important risk factors for diabetes and the effect of one of these factors seems to add to the other.
Subclinical inflammation confers an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders and other age-related chronic diseases. Physical activity and diet can attenuate systemic immune activation, but it is not known which individual components of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention are most effective in targeting subclinical inflammation.
We used data from the baseline examination and the 1 year follow-up of a subsample of 406 of 522 participants of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) to estimate the effect of individual components of lifestyle intervention on C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 levels, which represent the best characterised proinflammatory risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Changes in metabolic markers, dietary patterns and exercise were analysed to determine which were most strongly associated with the anti-inflammatory effect of lifestyle changes.
Lifestyle intervention reduced circulating levels of CRP (p
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis have been linked with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus (DM). Prior investigations suggest that systemic immunosuppressive drugs may improve insulin resistance and reduce the risk of DM.
To compare the risk of newly recorded DM among participants diagnosed with RA or psoriasis based on use of a variety of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
A retrospective cohort study among 121,280 patients with a diagnosis of either RA or psoriasis on at least 2 visits. The analyses were conducted in the context of 2 large health insurance programs, 1 in Canada and 1 in the United States, using administrative data. The mean follow-up was 5.8 months and began with the first prescription for a DMARD after study eligibility was met. Drug regimens were categorized into 4 mutually exclusive groups: (1) tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors with or without other DMARDs; (2) methotrexate without TNF inhibitors or hydroxychloroquine; (3) hydroxychloroquine without TNF inhibitors or methotrexate; or (4) other nonbiologic DMARDs without TNF inhibitors, methotrexate, or hydroxychloroquine (reference exposure).
Newly recorded DM as evidenced by a new diagnosis of DM with use of a DM-specific medication.
The study cohort consisted of 13,905 participants with 22,493 treatment episodes starting 1 of the categories of DMARD regimens between January 1996 and June 2008. New diabetes cases and respective incidence rates per 1000 person-years were: other nonbiologic DMARDs (55 cases among 3993 treatment episodes; rate, 50.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.3-53.2); TNF inhibitors (80 cases among 4623 treatment episodes; rate, 19.7; 95% CI, 19.1-20.3); methotrexate (82 cases among 8195 treatment episodes; rate, 23.8; 95% CI, 23.0-24.6); and hydroxychloroquine (50 cases among 5682 treatment episodes; rate, 22.2; 95% CI, 21.3-23.1). The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for DM were 0.62 (95% CI, 0.42-0.91) for TNF inhibitors, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.53-1.13) for methotrexate, and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.36-0.80) for hydroxychloroquine compared with other nonbiologic DMARDS.
Among patients with RA or psoriasis, the adjusted risk of DM was lower for individuals starting a TNF inhibitor or hydroxychloroquine compared with initiation of other nonbiologic DMARDs.
Comment In: JAMA. 2011 Jun 22;305(24):2573-421693749
The present study was aimed to examine associations of current and ex-smoking status with obesity and diabetes among elderly people. Nationwide study of Finnish elderly people based on biennial surveys from 1985 to 1995, were used to study 7482 people aged 65-79 years. Smoking status included non-, ex-light, ex-heavy, current light, and current heavy smokers. Obesity was set as body mass index (BMI) > or = 30. Information of smoking, BMI, and diabetes was based on self-reports. Logistic regression was used as the main method of analyses. Compared to non-smokers (reference category), ex-heavy smokers had higher (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.85) and current light smokers (OR, 0.46; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.69) lower relative risk of obesity. Current light smokers had also lower and ex-heavy smokers higher rate of diabetes than non-smokers. Ex-heavy smokers had a higher risk of obesity (OR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.30, 2.36) and diabetes (OR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.01) than ex-light smokers. Same pattern for current smokers was found. Heavy ex- and current elderly smokers are at risk of obesity and diabetes. Thus, heavy smokers should be emphasized in programs promoting smoking cessation.
OBJECTIVES: To analyse whether there is a relation-ship between birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors given the influence of potential modifying factors from birth time, former generations and adult life. DESIGN: Population-based cohort followed until 80 years of age. SETTING: Sweden. SUBJECTS: A total of 478 singleton men born in 1913 and participating in a population study in Gothenburg, Sweden, from age 50. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Systolic blood pressure (SBP), antihypertensive treatment, incident diabetes mellitus, and serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides and waist circumference as both continuous variables and in the highest quintiles of their distributions. RESULTS: After adjustment for the influence of birth time variables, hereditary factors and anthropometric and socio-economic adult life variables, SBP decreased by 3.7 mmHg per 1000 g increase of birth weight, the prevalence of antihypertensive treatment decreased by 32%, diabetes decreased by 53%, serum total cholesterol decreased by 0.20 mmol L(-1) and being in the top quintile of serum cholesterol decreased by 23%. The population risk percentage due to a birth weight
In Norsjö in Northern Sweden a cardiovascular intervention programme, for adults is presently tested. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of factors related to cardiovascular disease in all 15-year-old adolescents living in Norsjö in 1987 and 1988. The total cholesterol concentration in serum, as an average for the test period, was 4.2 mmol/l and 4.7 mmol/l for boys and girls, respectively. Fourteen per cent of the boys and 32% of the girls had a total cholesterol concentration exceeding 5 mmol/l. Twenty-seven per cent of the adolescents had high values for two or more variables related to risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The evaluation of the dietary registrations showed unsatisfactory values for fibre, P/S ratio and total fat. The dietary habits were better in the 15-year-olds in 1988 than in 1987 as judged by significantly higher average daily intake of fibre as well as a higher content of fibre per megajoule in the food.
Prevalence and incidence of known diabetes mellitus in Finnish subjects aged 30 years or over in 1970-1987 were investigated using a nationwide register of drug recipients and four population surveys. On the basis of the drug-register data, the prevalence of drug-treated diabetes in men increased from 1.5% in 1970 to 2.8% in 1987. In women, the prevalence increased from 2.1% in 1970 to 3.0% in 1979 and declined thereafter slightly to 2.7% in 1987. The increase in the prevalence of drug-treated diabetes was mainly due to the increase of diabetes in the age groups 60 years and older. The prevalence of all known diabetic subjects in the population studies increased from 2.1% in the health examination survey of 1966-1972 (n = 38,676) to 3.5% in the interview survey of 1976 (n = 10,657) and to 4.5% in the health examination survey of 1979-1980 (n = 7,217) but decreased to 3.3% in the interview survey in 1987 (n = 9,522). The increased prevalence of obesity in men and better survival may be important factors contributing to the increasing prevalence rates of diabetes in Finnish subjects aged 30 years and over.
Cystic fibrosis (CF)-related diabetes (CFRD) is correlated with age and has been associated with a decline in body mass index (BMI), pulmonary function, and survival. Over the last two decades, the focus has been on the early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes; therefore, in this study, we evaluated the status of the current clinical condition and survival in our CF population. In addition, we also aimed to investigate the incidence of diabetes among adolescence over time and to identify characteristics associated with early diabetes onset.
A retrospective chart review of a birth cohort consisting of 161 CF patients born between 1975 and 1994 and followed until 2011.
Over two decades, the incidence of CFRD among 11- to 16-year-old children remained unchanged at 12-14%, while the proportion of children with chronic pulmonary infection at age 10 declined from 31 to 8% (p