We aimed to quantify for the first time the relationship between statin adherence and ischemic stroke (IS) in patients with diabetes.
Using Finnish health registers, we assembled a cohort of 52?868 statin initiators with diabetes in 1995-2006. We conducted a nested case-control analysis matching cases with IS with up to four controls for age, sex, date of statin initiation and follow-up duration. Adjusted rate ratios for IS were estimated with conditional logistic regression. Additional potential confounders were considered with inverse probability weighting and the role of unmeasured confounding using external adjustment. Statin adherence was measured as the proportion of days covered (PDC).
Among 1703 cases and 6799 controls, good adherence to statins (PDC?=?80%) was associated with a 23% decreased incidence of IS (95%CI 14-32%) compared with poor adherence (PDC?
Attempts at replicating physiological insulin secretion, as a means of restoring the normal metabolic milieu and thereby minimizing the risk of diabetic complications, has become an essential feature of insulin treatment. However, despite advances in the production, purification, formulation and methods of delivery of insulin which have occurred in recent years, this has met with limited success. The current advocacy of intensive insulin therapy regimens involving multiple daily subcutaneous injection places a heavy burden of compliance on patients and has prompted interest in developing alternative, less invasive routes of delivery. To date, attempts to exploit the nasal, oral, gastrointestinal and transdermal routes have been mainly unsuccessful. The respiratory tree, with a large surface area, offers the greatest potential for the delivery of polypeptide drugs and there is renewed interest in administrating insulin by the intrapulmonary route. Current pulmonary drug delivery systems include a variety of pressurized metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, nebulizers and aqueous mist inhalers. Recent clinical studies suggest a possible role for inhaled insulin in fulfilling meal-related insulin requirements in persons with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Most experience with inhaled insulin has been obtained using either dry powder formulation in the Nektar Pulmonary Inhaler/Exubera device (Nektar Therapeutics Inc., San Carlos, CA, Aventis, Bridgewater, NJ, Pfizer, NY) or a liquid aerosol formulation in the AERx Insulin Diabetes Management System (Aradigm Corp., Hayward, CA, NovoNordisk A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark). If long-term safety and efficacy is confirmed, inhalation may become the first non-subcutaneous route of insulin administration for widespread clinical use. Despite overwhelming interest and investment in administering insulin via the oral route, success is not expected in the short term. Attempts at utilizing the buccal mucosa and skin are also continuing. Pancreatic transplantation will remain limited to those patients receiving a kidney transplant and immunotherapy. Islet cell transplantation is at an early though encouraging stage following the availability of new less toxic immunosuppressive agents. True insulin independence will require further advances in the combined fields of cell biology and genetics to ensure freedom from both the need for lifelong administration of insulin and the complications of diabetes.
To evaluate the data quality in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP) and the Prescription Registry in the country of Northern Jutland (487,000 inhabitants) concerning insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and insulin treated diabetes mellitus, a comparison between data in the two registries was made. From the Regional Hospital Registry in the County of Northern Jutland, containing discharge diagnoses from all admissions to hospitals in the county, we identified all patients with the IDDM diagnosis between 1987 and 1993. From the Regional Prescription Registry all insulin prescriptions taken up at pharmacies in the county in 1993 were identified. All persons were identified by their individual identification number (CPR-number), and a record linkage between the two data sources was made. The predictive value of an IDDM-registration in the DNRP was 96% and the corresponding completeness 91%. In the Prescription Registry the completeness was 96%. Both registries seem to be valuable study bases for epidemiological research in diabetes mellitus.
A prevalence of 0.9% for drug-treated diabetes mellitus was calculated (male 0.8; female 1.0) for Norway, based upon a survey of 6777 prescriptions of antidiabetic drugs at 61.5% of Norwegian pharmacies during a four-week period in 1984. A male dominance was found below the age of 50 years, gradually shifting towards female dominance among the elderly. These findings are in accordance with a population screening on diabetes mellitus in the county of Nord-TrÃ¸ndelag, and may indicate that prescription data can be a valuable source in the estimation of sex and age prevalence figures. Compared to screening, prescription studies are more simple to perform and cheaper, and can provide valuable background information in primary health care.
Diabetic men have lowered overall prostate cancer (PCa) risk, while their risk of high-grade disease may be elevated. The antidiabetic drug metformin may reduce the risk. This study evaluated PCa incidence among users of metformin and other antidiabetic drugs in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC).
The study population (78,615 men) was linked to the national prescription database. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCa were estimated using Cox regression, with medication use as a time-dependent variable. The effect of diabetes was estimated by comparing antidiabetic drug users to non-users, while drug-specific effects were evaluated within antidiabetic drug users. Analyses were performed in both study arms of FinRSPC.
Compared to non-users, men using antidiabetic drugs had lowered overall PCa risk (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.92), and this association was not affected by PCa screening. However, the risk of metastatic PCa was increased (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09-1.91). Among antidiabetic drug users, metformin decreased overall PCa risk (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95) in a dose-dependent manner. When stratified by FinRSPC study arm, the risk reduction was observed only in the screening arm. Sulphonylureas increased the risk of metastatic PCa (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.11-3.77). Use of thiazoledenediones or insulin was not associated with PCa risk.
Among antidiabetic drug users, metformin lowered the overall PCa risk, while the risk of metastatic disease was elevated in sulphonylurea users. As sulphonylureas stimulate insulin secretion, the results suggest that hyperinsulinemia may be a risk factor for PCa.
Studies of the risk of motor vehicle crash associated with diabetes have produced conflicting results.
To assess whether the use of anti-diabetic drugs among the elderly increases the risk of motor vehicle crash.
The computerized databases of the various universal insurance programs of Québec were linked to form a cohort of all 224,734 elderly drivers that was followed from 1990-1993. Using a nested case-control approach, all 5,579 drivers involved in an injurious crash (cases) and a random sample of 13,300 control subjects were identified. Exposure to anti-diabetic drugs was assessed in the year preceding the index date, namely the date of the crash for the cases and a randomly selected date during follow-up for the controls.
The adjusted rate ratio of an injurious crash was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-2.0) for current users of insulin monotherapy relative to non-users and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7) for sulfonylurea and metformin combined. Monotherapy, using either a sulfonylurea or metformin, was not associated with an increased risk. There was a dose-response effect in subjects using high doses of combined oral therapy (RR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.0). For users of insulin monotherapy or of high doses of combined oral therapy, the increase corresponds to an excess rate of 32 crashes per 10,000 elderly drivers per year.
L Elderly drivers treated with insulin monotherapy or a combination of sulfonylurea and metformin, especially at high doses, have a small increased risk of injurious crashes. There is no increased risk associated with any regimen of oral monotherapy.
PURPOSE: To describe and compare the pattern of antihypertensive drug prescriptions during different time periods. METHODS: Antihypertensive prescriptions were registered in all patients who underwent an annual follow-up during 1998 (n = 984), 1992-1993 (n = 924), and 1981 (n = 689), at the hypertension outpatient clinic in primary health care, Skara, Sweden. RESULTS: From 1981 to 1998 the total prescriptions of thiazides declined from 61 to 10% (p
The purpose of this study was to examine whether prescribing practices for elderly individuals with diabetes and hypertension changed over the past decade.
We linked the Ontario Diabetes Database and four administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, to identify 27,822 patients >65 years of age who had diabetes and were newly treated for hypertension between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2001. All patients were followed for 2 years after their initial antihypertensive medication prescription.
The 27,822 patients in this study (mean age 72 years, 51% men) were treated with oral hypoglycemic agents alone (n = 17,128 patients, 62%), insulin alone (n = 2,346, 8%), both oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin (n = 2,205, 8%), or diet alone (n = 6,143, 22%). Management within the first 2 years of hypertension diagnosis consisted of antihypertensive monotherapy in 20,183 patients (73%), two antihypertensive drugs in 6,207 (22%), and three or more drugs in 1,432 (5%); the most frequently chosen antihypertensive drugs were ACE inhibitors (68%), thiazides (15%), and calcium channel blockers (9%). Between 1995 and 2001, physician prescribing practices changed: the population-adjusted rates of antihypertensive drug prescribing increased by 46% (95% CI 33-55%), the proportion of initial antihypertensive prescriptions for ACE inhibitors increased from 54 to 76% (P
Thirty-five plant species were selected from the published literature as traditionally used by the Indigenous Peoples of the boreal forest in Canada for three or more symptoms of diabetes or its complications. Antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts support the contribution of these traditional medicines in a lifestyle historically low in the incidence of diabetes. In a DPPH assay of free radical scavenging activity 89% of the methanol extracts had activity significantly greater than common modern dietary components, 14% were statistically equal to ascorbic acid and 23% had activities similar to green tea and a Trolox positive control. Superoxides produced with an NBT/xanthine oxidase assay found scavenging was significantly higher in 29% of the species as compared with the modern dietary components and Trolox. The methanol extracts of Rhus hirta, Quercus alba and Cornus stolonifera performed similarly to green tea's in this assay. Assessment of peroxyl radical scavenging using a DCF/AAPH assay showed 60% of the plant extracts statistically similar to Trolox while R. hirta and Solidago canadensis extracts were greater than green tea, ascorbic acid and Trolox. The majority of the species (63 and 97%, respectively) had scavenging activities similar to ascorbic acid in the superoxide and peroxyl radical scavenging assays.