To explore the issue of gender equity in diabetes care in Sweden and to develop strategies for monitoring gender equity in health care, population-based studies and statistics published since 1990 were reviewed that contained gender-specific data on health care utilization, glycemic control, patient satisfaction, health-related quality of life, and mortality from diabetes. The review shows that diabetic women in Sweden report more frequent outpatient contacts, less patient satisfaction, and a lower health-related quality of life than diabetic men. No gender differences were found in the level of glycemic control. Young and middle-aged men with diabetes have a high excess all-cause mortality as compared with nondiabetic men. A trend toward stronger social gradient in mortality among women than men with diabetes was observed in a large nationwide study.
This study explored the impact of involvement in cooking on long-term morbidity and mortality among patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Data are from the population-based study Diabetes Care in General Practice. In baseline questionnaires, 1348 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM gave information on how frequently they consumed a warm main meal and how often they cooked it themselves. The selected patients were followed up for 19 years in the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Register of Causes of Death.
This study analysed the association between involvement in cooking and each of seven pre-specified outcomes was analysed in Cox regression models with stepwise adjustment for possible confounders and mediators.
92% of the patients with T2DM consumed a warm main meal = five times per week. Among these, women who cooked for themselves less than once a week had a higher risk of diabetes-related deaths (HR 1.86 [95% CI 1.03-3.35], p = 0.039) and stroke (HR 2.47 [95% CI 1.08-5.65], p = 0.033), after adjustment for confounders. For men, infrequent cooking was not related to increased risk for the outcomes investigated.
In patients newly diagnosed with T2DM and with a regular intake of warm main meals, infrequent involvement in cooking was associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related death and stroke for women, but not for men. General practitioners should pay special attention to managing diabetes treatment in female patients newly diagnosed with T2DM who report infrequent involvement in cooking.
OBJECTIVE: To explore risk factors for all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A prospective population-based study of 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who consecutively completed an annual checkup in primary care in Skara, Sweden, during 1992-1993. Vital status was ascertained to year 2000. Baseline characteristics as predictors for mortality were analyzed by Cox regression and expressed as relative risks (RRs), with 95% CIs. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 5.9 years, 131 patients died (56 deaths per 1,000 patients per year). In both sexes, all-cause mortality was predicted by HbA(1c) (by 1%; RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27), and by LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios (1.15, 1.00-1.32). Increased mortality was also seen with prevalent hypertension (1.72, 1.21-2.44), microalbuminuria (1.87, 1.27-2.76), and previous cardiovascular disease (1.70, 1.15-2.50). Subanalyses revealed that increased mortality related to HbA(1c) was restricted to hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (1.23, 1.04-1.47). Serum triglycerides (by 1 mmol/l) predicted all-cause mortality in women (1.25, 1.06-1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Poor glucose and lipid control and hypertension predicted all-cause mortality. Survival was also predicted by prevalent microalbuminuria and by previous cardiovascular disease. Confirming results from clinical trials, this population-based study has implications for primary and secondary prevention.