OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that abnormal levels of cortisol and testosterone might increase the risk of serious somatic diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 5-year follow-up study in middle-aged men. METHODS: A population-based cohort study conducted in 1995 amongst 141 Swedish men born in 1944, in whom a clinical examination supplemented by medical history aimed to disclose the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke), type 2 diabetes and hypertension were performed at baseline and at follow-up in the year 2000. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured repeatedly over the day. Serum testosterone concentrations were also determined. Using the baseline data, an algorithm was constructed, which classified the secretion pattern of cortisol and testosterone from each individual as being normal or abnormal. RESULTS: By the end of follow-up, men with an abnormal hormone secretion pattern (n = 73) had elevated mean arterial pressure (P = 0.003), fasting insulin (P = 0.009) and insulin : glucose ratio (P = 0.005) compared with men with a normal secretion pattern (n = 68). Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist : hip ratio were significantly elevated in both groups. However, the 5-year incidence of CVD, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension were significantly higher (P
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) binds to IGF and thus modulates IGF signaling pathway. We have shown earlier that the IGFBP5 gene was downregulated in the adipose tissue after 12-week carbohydrate diet with low insulinemic response.
The aim was to examine the putative contribution of genetic variation of the IGFBP5 gene to the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS).
DPS is a longitudinal study where 522 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either lifestyle intervention group or control group. DNA was available from 507 subjects (mean body mass index (BMI) 31.2+/-4.5 kg/m(2), age 55+/-7 years). The eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from HapMap database and genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination protocol. The main results were confirmed in a larger cross-sectional study population (METSIM). In addition, the gene expression of IGFBP5 was studied in two previously published study populations (FUNGENUT and GENOBIN) of 124 subjects with insulin resistance (BMI 32.2+/-3.5 kg/m(2), age 57.7+/-7.4 years).
Three out of eight IGFBP5 markers (rs9341234, rs3276 and rs11575134) were significantly associated with circulating adiponectin concentrations in men. Furthermore, mRNA expression studies of subcutaneous adipose tissue showed that mRNA concentrations of IGFBP5 correlated with adiponectin concentrations in all subjects and in women. None of the IGFBP5 SNPs were associated with T2DM.
Our findings show that IGFBP5 has a gender-specific association with adiponectin, which may modulate the development of metabolic syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated inflammation in type 2 diabetes has not been studied, and the association between cytokine-mediated inflammation and diabetes is not fully clarified. METHODS AND RESULTS: 15-Keto-dihydro-prostaglandin F2alpha (a metabolite of prostaglandin F2alpha and an indicator of COX-mediated inflammation), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein A (SAA), 8-iso-PGF2alpha (a nonenzymatic, free radical product of arachidonic acid and an indicator of oxidative stress), and alpha-tocopherol were measured in a population-based sample of 77-year-old men (n=765), in which 112 men had type 2 diabetes. The inflammatory indicators were increased in men with diabetes (urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha, P
It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent.
To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).
All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits.
The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 ?g/L (median 0.34 ?g/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 ?g/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1-3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT regarding effect of B-Cd on eGFR or RBP.
The present study provides support for the hypothesis that women with DM have higher risk of renal glomerular damage from cadmium exposure compared to women without DM.
In a middle-aged population, it was recently shown that the stable vasopressin marker plasma copeptin (copeptin) predicts development of diabetes mellitus, diabetic heart disease and death. Here, it was hypothesised whether copeptin predicts a risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiovascular mortality in an older population.
Between 2002 and 2006, fasting plasma copeptin was examined and measured in 5386 participants of a population-based longitudinal study (mean age 69.4±6.2 years, 69.8% males) and related copeptin to risk of CAD (first myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation), cardiovascular and total mortality during a mean follow-up time of 6.5 years using multivariate adjusted (age, gender, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive therapy, smoking, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) Cox proportional hazards models.
Among subjects free from CAD at baseline, the multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) per 1 SD increment of log-transformed copeptin for risk of CAD development was 1.20 (1.08 to 1.33) (p=0.001). There was a borderline significant interaction between diabetes and copeptin on CAD risk (p=0.08) with higher copeptin-associated risk in subjects with diabetes (1.49 (1.14 to 1.95); p=0.004) than in non-diabetic subjects (1.15 (1.02 to 1.50); p=0.02). Moreover, each SD increment of copeptin independently predicted total mortality (1.31 (1.21 to 1.41); p
The reasons for the rapidly increasing prevalence of diabetes (NIDDM) among Alaskan Eskimos are only partly understood. This study examines the association of fatty acid metabolism in 68 Alaskan Eskimos with NIDDM or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 386 with normal glucose tolerance > 24 years old. The prevalence of NIDDM was 12% and IGT was 18% in those > 54 years of age and in those
Middle Eastern immigrants to western countries are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, the heritability and impact of first-degree family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes on insulin secretion and action have not been adequately described.
Citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-75 years born in Iraq or Sweden were invited to participate in this population-based study. Insulin secretion (corrected insulin response and oral disposition index) and action (insulin sensitivity index) were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests.
In total, 45.7% of Iraqis (616/1348) and 27.4% of native Swedes (201/733) had FH in parent(s), sibling(s) or single parent and sibling, i.e., FH+. Approximately 8% of Iraqis and 0.7% of Swedes had = 3 sibling(s) and parent(s) with diabetes, i.e., FH++. Irrespective of family size, prediabetes and diabetes increased with family burden (FH- 29.4%; FH+ 38.8%; FH++ 61.7%) without significant differences across ethnicities. With increasing level of family burden, insulin secretion rather than insulin action decreased. Individuals with a combination of = 3 siblings and parents with diabetes presented with the lowest levels of insulin secretion.
The Iraqi immigrant population often present with a strong familial burden of type 2 diabetes with the worst glycemic control and highest diabetes risk in individuals with = 3 siblings and parents with diabetes. Our data show that in a population still free from diabetes familial burden influences insulin secretion to a higher degree than insulin action and may be a logical target for intervention.
We studied the impact of a family history of type 2 diabetes on physical fitness, lifestyle factors and diabetes-related metabolic factors.
The Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes (PPP)-Botnia study is a population-based study in Western Finland, which includes a random sample of 5,208 individuals aged 18 to 75 years identified through the national Finnish Population Registry. Physical activity, dietary habits and family history of type 2 diabetes were assessed by questionnaires and physical fitness by a validated 2 km walking test. Insulin secretion and action were assessed based upon OGTT measurements of insulin and glucose.
A family history of type 2 diabetes was associated with a 2.4-fold risk of diabetes and lower physical fitness (maximal aerobic capacity 29.2 +/- 7.2 vs 32.1 +/- 7.0, p = 0.01) despite having similar reported physical activity to that of individuals with no family history. The same individuals also had reduced insulin secretion adjusted for insulin resistance, i.e. disposition index (p
The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is widely used for risk stratification in Type 2 diabetes prevention programmes. Estimates of ß-cell function vary widely in people without diabetes and reduced insulin secretion has been described in people at risk for diabetes. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate FINDRISC as a tool to characterize reduced ß-cell function in individuals without known diabetes.
In this population-based cohort from the Hoorn municipal registry, subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test and a meal tolerance test on separate days, in random order, within 2 weeks. One hundred and eighty-six subjects, age 41-66 years, with no known Type 2 diabetes were included. Of those, 163 (87.6%) had normal glucose metabolism and 23 (12.4%) had abnormal glucose metabolism (19 with impaired glucose metabolism; four with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes based on study results). Insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function (classical: insulinogenic index; ratio of areas under insulin/glucose curves; model-based: glucose sensitivity; rate sensitivity; potentiation) estimates were calculated from oral glucose tolerance test and meal tolerance test data.
FINDRISC was associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.41, P