Health utility (HU) measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D), and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3) and the feeling thermometer (FT) among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables.
ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs) and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU's and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT.
The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P ?
Left ventricular diastolic function, assessed by echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging, is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, superior to global left ventricular longitudinal strain, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The aim of the study was to determine whether left ventricular systolic function, in terms of global left ventricular longitudinal strain (GLS), and diastolic function, expressed as the ratio between early diastolic transmitral flow and mitral annular motion velocities (E/e'), can predict cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
We prospectively investigated 406 consecutive patients, aged 55-65 years, with diabetes mellitus, who participated in the CARDIPP study. Echocardiography, pulse pressure (pp), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were analysed. Twelve cases of myocardial infarction and seven cases of stroke were identified during the follow-up period of 67 ? 17 months. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that E/e' was a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazards ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.18, P 15 compared with 2.6% for patients with E/e' =15, P = 0.011.
In middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes, E/e' is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke, comparable with HbA1c and superior to GLS and LVEF.
To estimate risks of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and total mortality with low or higher levels of physical activity (PA) assessed with questionnaire, in an observational study of patients with type-2 diabetes from the Swedish National Diabetes Register.
A total of 15,462 patients (60 years), were followed for 5 years from baseline in 2004 until 2009, with 760 CVD events and 427 total mortality events based on 54,344 person-years.
Comparing 6963 patients with low baseline PA (never or 1-2 times/week for 30?min) and 8499 patients with higher baseline PA (regular 3 times/week or more), hazard ratios for fatal/nonfatal CHD, fatal/nonfatal CVD, fatal CVD, and total mortality were 1.25 (95% CI 1.05-1.48; p?=?0.01), 1.26 (95% CI 1.09-1.45; p?=?0.002), 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.41; p?=?0.004), and 1.48 (95% CI 1.22-1.79; p?
We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the long-term risk of stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
All patients who underwent primary coronary artery bypass grafting in Sweden from 2000 through 2011 were included from the SWEDEHEART register. We excluded patients with prior stroke, and patients who had a stroke or died within 30 days of surgery. The National Diabetes Register was used to identify patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Incident stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), and all-cause mortality was obtained by record linkage with the National Patient Register and the Cause of Death register. We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate the risk of stroke in relation to type of diabetes. A total of 53 820 patients (type 1 diabetes [n=714], type 2 diabetes [n=10 054], no diabetes [n=43 052]) were included. During a mean follow-up of 7.4 years (398 337 person-years), in total, 8.0% (n=4296) of the patients had a stroke: 7.3% (n=52) in patients with type 1 diabetes, 9.1% (n=915) in patients with type 2 diabetes, and 7.7% (n=3329) in patients with no diabetes. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for all stroke was 1.59 (1.20-2.11) in type 1 diabetes, and 1.32 (1.23-1.43) in type 2 diabetes.
The long-term risk for stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting was increased in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, compared to patients with no diabetes.
Silent coronary artery disease (CAD) is prevalent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) over recent years has emerged a useful tool for assessing and diagnosing CAD it's role and applicability for patients with T2DM is still unclarified, in particular in asymptomatic patients. We aimed to assess the role of CCTA in detecting and characterizing CAD in patients with T2DM without cardiac symptoms when compared to gold standard invasive coronary angiography (ICA).
This was a cross-sectional analysis of patients with T2DM without symptomatic CAD enrolled in the Asker and Baerum Cardiovascular Diabetes Study who, following clinical examination and laboratory assessment, underwent subsequently CCTA and ICA.
In total 48 Caucasian patients with T2DM (36 men, age 64.0?±?7.3 years, diabetes duration 14.6?±?6.4 years, HbA1c 7.4?±?1.1 %, BMI 29.6?±?4.3 kg/m(2)) consented to, and underwent, both procedures (CCTA and ICA). The population was at intermediate cardiovascular risk (mean coronary artery calcium score 269, 75 % treated with antihypertensive therapy). ICA identified a prevalence of silent CAD at 17 % whereas CCTA 35 %. CCTA had a high sensitivity (100 %) and a high negative predictive value (100 %) for detection of patients with CAD when compared to ICA, but the positive predictive value was low (47 %).
Low-dose CCTA is a reliable method for detection and exclusion of significant CAD in T2DM and thus may be a useful tool for the clinicians. However, a low positive predictive value may limit its usefulness as a screening tool for all CAD asymptomatic patients with T2DM. Further studies should assess the applicability for risk assessment beyond the evaluation of the vascular bed.
Patients with diabetes suffering from hypoglycaemia may be treated by a Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) and are often released at the scene following treatment. Some of these patients experience secondary hypoglycaemia and require renewed treatment or admission to hospital. The present study was initiated in order to investigate the extent of secondary hypoglycaemia, to evaluate the appropriateness of the current treatment practice, and to provide practical suggestions for the hand-ing of prehospital hypoglycaemia.
All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician who states the patients' identity, treatment, outcome and diagnosis. Over a period of four years (1 May 2006-30 April 2010), all missions related to hypo-glycaemia were reviewed. Each entry was cross-referenced with the patient's hospital files to detect any recurrent hypoglycaemic episodes within 24 hours from initial contact.
The MECU treated 138 hypoglycaemic cases of whom 50% were released at home following treatment. Four of these patients experienced secondary hypoglycaemia. Two were treated by the MECU and two were admitted through the emergency department without contact to the MECU.
The number of patients suffering from secondary hypoglycaemia following treatment by the MECU is acceptable and in line with numbers reported by similar organisations.