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Clinical management of type 2 diabetes in indigenous youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146925
Source
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;56(6):1441-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Elizabeth A C Sellers
Kelly Moore
Heather J Dean
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, FE-307, 685 William Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0Z2, Canada. esellers@exchange.hsc.mb.ca
Source
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;56(6):1441-59
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body Weight
Child
Comorbidity
Diabetes Complications - diagnosis - therapy
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - diagnosis - diet therapy - drug therapy - prevention & control - therapy
Health Services, Indigenous - organization & administration - standards - trends
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Mass Screening
Patient Education as Topic
Population Groups
Primary Prevention
Risk Reduction Behavior
Abstract
Youth-onset type 2 diabetes is a serious public health problem for Indigenous people throughout the world. This article reviews the epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and challenges in achieving successful clinical management of this disorder in Indigenous youth. Screening criteria and the complications and comorbidities of type 2 diabetes are also reviewed.
PubMed ID
19962030 View in PubMed
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Editor's Choice- Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among patients with acute coronary syndromes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293537
Source
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2017 Dec; 6(8):744-749
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Thorarinn A Bjarnason
Linda B Kristinsdottir
Erna S Oskarsdottir
Steinar O Hafthorsson
Isleifur Olafsson
Sigrun H Lund
Karl Andersen
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Landspitali the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2017 Dec; 6(8):744-749
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - complications - diagnosis - mortality
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Coronary Care Units
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Electrocardiography
Female
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glycated Hemoglobin A - metabolism
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prediabetic State - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prognosis
ROC Curve
Survival Rate
Abstract
Previously undetected dysglycaemia is common among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). The aim of this study was to identify the most reliable method of diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes in ACS patients.
Patients admitted to the coronary care unit with ACSs and no previous history of T2DM were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was measured by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) with a standard oral glucose tolerance test during hospital admission, and this process was repeated 3 months later. In this study, the diagnosis of T2DM required at least two measurements above the diabetes cut-off point according to current American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization criteria.
A total of 250 patients were included in the study. T2DM was diagnosed in 7.2%. The sensitivities for detecting T2DM were 33.3%, 61.1% and 77.8% during admission and 27.8%, 61.1% and 72.2% at follow-up for HbA1c, FPG and 2hPG, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPVs) for diagnosing T2DM were 100%, 91.7% and 51.9% during admission and 71.4%, 91.7% and 65.0% at follow-up for HbA1c, FPG and 2hPG, respectively. The specificities and negative predictive values were high for all methods. By combining all measurements, the sensitivity was 100% and the PPV was 44.2%, while the combination of all HbA1c and FPG measurements provided 88.9% sensitivity and 80.0% PPV.
Diagnosis of T2DM can be reliably carried out by repeated measurements of FPG and HbA1c in ACS patients, with limited added value of an oral glucose tolerance test.
PubMed ID
27625341 View in PubMed
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Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rate and cardiovascular events: a controlled trial among 1,912,392 Danish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292701
Source
Diabetologia. 2017 Nov; 60(11):2183-2191
Publication Type
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Rebecca K Simmons
Simon J Griffin
Daniel R Witte
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Torsten Lauritzen
Annelli Sandbæk
Author Affiliation
MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. rks34@cam.ac.uk.
Source
Diabetologia. 2017 Nov; 60(11):2183-2191
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - diagnosis - metabolism
Female
Glycated Hemoglobin A - metabolism
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Abstract
Health check programmes for chronic disease have been introduced in a number of countries. However, there are few trials assessing the benefits and harms of these screening programmes at the population level. In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the effect of population-based screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rates and cardiovascular events.
This register-based, non-randomised, controlled trial included men and women aged 40-69 years without known diabetes who were registered with a general practice in Denmark (n = 1,912,392). Between 2001 and 2006, 153,107 individuals registered with 181 practices participating in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION)-Denmark study were sent a diabetes risk score questionnaire. Individuals at moderate-to-high risk were invited to visit their GP for assessment of diabetes status and cardiovascular risk (screening group). The 1,759,285 individuals registered with all other general practices in Denmark constituted the retrospectively constructed no-screening (control) group. Outcomes were mortality rate and cardiovascular events (cardiovascular disease death, non-fatal ischaemic heart disease or stroke). The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-screen principle.
Among the screening group, 27,177 (18%) individuals attended for assessment of diabetes status and cardiovascular risk. Of these, 1,533 were diagnosed with diabetes. During a median follow-up of 9.5 years, there were 11,826 deaths in the screening group and 141,719 in the no-screening group (HR 0.99 [95% CI 0.96, 1.02], p = 0.66). There were 17,941 cardiovascular events in the screening group and 208,476 in the no-screening group (HR 0.99 [0.96, 1.02], p = 0.49).
A population-based stepwise screening programme for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among all middle-aged adults in Denmark was not associated with a reduction in rate of mortality or cardiovascular events between 2001 and 2012.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28831535 View in PubMed
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Effect of screening for type 2 diabetes on risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: a controlled trial among 139,075 individuals diagnosed with diabetes in Denmark between 2001 and 2009.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292700
Source
Diabetologia. 2017 Nov; 60(11):2192-2199
Publication Type
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Rebecca K Simmons
Simon J Griffin
Torsten Lauritzen
Annelli Sandbæk
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Section of General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. rks34@cam.ac.uk.
Source
Diabetologia. 2017 Nov; 60(11):2192-2199
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - diagnosis
Female
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care
Risk factors
Abstract
There is continuing debate about the net benefits of population screening for type 2 diabetes. We compared the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality among incident cases of type 2 diabetes in a screened group with those in an unscreened group.
In this register-based non-randomised controlled trial, eligible individuals were all men and women aged 40-69 years without known diabetes, registered with a general practice in Denmark (n = 1,912,392). Between 2001 and 2006, 153,107 individuals registered with 181 practices participating in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION)-Denmark study were sent a diabetes-risk-score questionnaire. Individuals at moderate-to-high risk were invited to visit their family doctor for assessment of diabetes status and cardiovascular risk (screening group). The 1,759,285 individuals registered with all other practices in Denmark constituted the retrospectively constructed no-screening (control) group. In this post hoc analysis, we identified individuals from the screening and no-screening groups who were diagnosed with diabetes between 2001 and 2009 (n = 139,075), and compared risk of CVD and mortality in these groups between 2001 and 2012.
In the screening group, 27,177/153,107 (18%) individuals attended for screening, of whom 1533 were diagnosed with diabetes. Between 2001 and 2009, 13,992 people were newly diagnosed with diabetes in the screening group (including those diagnosed by screening) and 125,083 in the no-screening group. Between 2001 and 2012, the risks of CVD and mortality were lower among individuals with diabetes in the screening group compared with individuals with diabetes in the no-screening (control) group (CVD HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.80, 0.89; mortality HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.74, 0.84).
A single round of diabetes screening and cardiovascular risk assessment in middle-aged Danish adults in general practice was associated with a significant reduction in risk of all-cause mortality and CVD events in those diagnosed with diabetes.
Notes
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2015 Dec 1;163(11):861-8 PMID 26501513
Cites: Diabetologia. 2012 Jun;55(6):1651-9 PMID 22237689
Cites: Lancet. 2011 Jul 9;378(9786):156-67 PMID 21705063
Cites: Lancet. 2012 Nov 17;380(9855):1741-8 PMID 23040422
Cites: Diabetologia. 2017 Aug 23;:null PMID 28831535
Cites: Diabet Med. 1998 Jul;15(7):539-53 PMID 9686693
Cites: J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017 Jun;69(6):613-624 PMID 28271498
Cites: Diabetologia. 2004 Sep;47(9):1566-73 PMID 15365615
Cites: Lancet. 2010 Apr 17;375(9723):1365-74 PMID 20356621
Cites: BMJ. 2007 Sep 8;335(7618):486 PMID 17761995
Cites: Eur Heart J. 2003 Jun;24(11):987-1003 PMID 12788299
Cites: BMJ. 2016 Jan 06;352:h6080 PMID 26740343
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2004 Mar;27(3):727-33 PMID 14988293
Cites: Prev Med. 2000 Oct;31(4):396-402 PMID 11006065
Cites: Clin Epidemiol. 2014 Dec 18;7:5-15 PMID 25565889
Cites: PLoS One. 2013 Jul 15;8(7):e66454 PMID 23869204
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2000 Oct;23(10):1563-80 PMID 11023153
Cites: Diabetes Care. 1992 Jul;15(7):815-9 PMID 1516497
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2014 Jun;37(6):1668-74 PMID 24705614
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Apr;28(2):233-40 PMID 10342684
Cites: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Sep;24 Suppl 3:S6-11 PMID 11063279
Cites: Diabetologia. 2008 Dec;51(12):2187-96 PMID 18815769
Cites: Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006 Jan-Feb;22(1):20-5 PMID 16142814
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2015 Aug;38(8):1449-55 PMID 25986661
PubMed ID
28831539 View in PubMed
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Metabolic syndrome' in a middle-aged Finnish population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207743
Source
J Cardiovasc Risk. 1997 Aug;4(4):291-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
M J Vanhala
E A Kumpusalo
T K Pitkäjärvi
J K Takala
Author Affiliation
Pieksämäki District Health Centre, Naarajärvi Health Station, Finland.
Source
J Cardiovasc Risk. 1997 Aug;4(4):291-5
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Blood pressure
Body constitution
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertension - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Hypertriglyceridemia - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Syndrome
Abstract
To investigate methods for the detection of different clusterings of the insulin-resistant abnormalities consistent with the concept of the 'metabolic syndrome' in clinical practice, and to research the occurrence of these clusters in a middle-aged Finnish population.
We studied a random sample of 207 middle-aged subjects in the city of Tampere, and all 1148 subjects of four middle-aged age groups in Pieksamaki town, in central Finland. Clusterings of the following eight markers of insulin resistance were recorded as the main outcome measures: 1) at least one first-degree relative with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM); 2) obesity: body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2; 3) central adiposity: waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) > or = 1.00 in men and > or = 0.88 in women; 4) hypertension: systolic blood pressure > or = 160 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > or = 95 mmHg, or receiving drug treatment for hypertension; 5) hypertriglyceridaemia > or = 1.70 mmol/l; 6) low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: or = 13.0 mU/l.
The metabolic syndrome, defined as a clustering of dyslipidaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL cholesterol, or both) and insulin resistance (abnormal glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinaemia, or both) was present in 17% of men and in 8% of women; this sex difference was statistically significant (P
PubMed ID
9477208 View in PubMed
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