During 1981-1993, 229 episodes of bacteraemia due to beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, C and G were diagnosed in the County of Northern Jutland, Denmark. The annual rates for bacteraemia were quite constant during the 13-year period for each streptococcal group. Group A streptococcal (GAS) bacteraemia was the most frequent, comprising 1.4% of all bacteraemias. The incidence of GAS bacteraemia was 1.8/100,000/year in children 60 years old. With the notable exception of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteraemia in neonates, beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups B, C (GCS) and G (GGS) were isolated mostly from elderly patients. Except for GBS bacteraemia in neonates, approximately one-third of the bacteraemias in each group was nosocomially acquired. Predisposing factors included operative procedures in GAS and GCS bacteraemia, and diabetes mellitus in GBS bacteraemia. The skin was the most common primary focus in GAC, GCC and GGS bacteraemias, whereas the urinary tract was the commonest focus in GBS bacteraemia in adults. The mortality rates in GAS, GCS, GGS, and adult GBS bacteraemia were 23%, 16%, 17% and 19%, respectively. Of the 23 fatal cases of GAS bacteraemia, 57% died within 24 h after blood cultures had been obtained.
To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and assessment of high blood pressure in adults.
For people with high blood pressure, the assignment of a diagnosis of hypertension depends on the appropriate measurement of blood pressure, the level of the blood pressure elevation, the duration of follow-up and the presence of concomitant vascular risk factors, target organ damage and established atherosclerotic diseases. For people diagnosed with hypertension, defining the overall risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes requires laboratory testing, a search for target organ damage and an assessment of the modifiable causes of hypertension. Out-of-clinic blood pressure assessment and echocardiography are options for selected patients.
People at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and were identified and quantified.
Medline searches were conducted from the period of the last revision of the Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension (May 1998 to October 2000). Reference lists were scanned, experts were polled, and the personal files of the subgroup members and authors were used to identify other studies. All relevant articles were reviewed and appraised, using prespecified levels of evidence, by content experts and methodological experts.
A high value was placed on the identification of people at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The identification of people at higher risk of cardiovascular disease will permit counselling for lifestyle manoeuvres and the introduction of antihypertensive drugs to reduce blood pressure for patients with sustained hypertension. In certain settings, and for specific classes of drugs, blood pressure lowering has been associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and/or mortality.
The present document contains detailed recommendations pertaining to aspects of the diagnosis and assessment of patients with hypertension, including the accurate measurement of blood pressure, criteria for the diagnosis of hypertension and recommendations for follow-up, routine and optional laboratory testing, assessment for renovascular hypertension, home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and the role of echocardiography in hypertension.
All recommendations were graded according to strength of the evidence and voted on by the Canadian Hypertension Recommendations Working Group. Only the recommendations achieving high levels of consensus are reported here. These guidelines will be updated annually.
These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Hypertension Society, The Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, The College of Family Physicians of Canada, The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, The Adult Disease Division and Bureau of Cardio-Respiratory Diseases and Diabetes at the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control of Health Canada.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of menopause in Aboriginal women, in particular Canadian Aboriginal women. METHODS: An extensive review of articles extracted from both medical and non-medical databases was undertaken. The search strategy combined the key word "menopause" with any of the following terms: Aboriginals, Native Americans, Natives, Indians, Métis, Inuit, Eskimo, and Indigenous people. RESULTS: A total of 29 records were found, 13 of which had results relevant to the objective of the study. These articles suggest that menopause may have a positive effect on the lives of Aboriginal women with respect to increasing their freedom within the community. Aboriginal women appear to experience fewer vasomotor symptoms than other North American women. CONCLUSION: More research needs to be done to determine the effect menopause has on Canadian Aboriginal women and their coexisting diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. This work will allow health care providers to make more informed decisions on managing Aboriginal women's transition through menopause in areas such as hormone replacement therapy.
BACKGROUND: Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between heavy consumption of nonnarcotic analgesics and the occurrence of chronic renal failure, but it is unclear which is the cause and which is the effect METHODS: In a nationwide, population-based, case-control study of early-stage chronic renal failure in Sweden, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 926 patients with newly diagnosed renal failure and 998 control subjects, of whom 918 and 980, respectively, had complete data. We used logistic-regression models to estimate the relative risks of disease-specific types of chronic renal failure associated with the use of various analgesics RESULTS: Aspirin and acetaminophen were used regularly by 37 percent and 25 percent, respectively, of the patients with renal failure and by 19 percent and 12 percent, respectively, of the controls. Regular use of either drug in the absence of the other was associated with an increase by a factor of 2.5 in the risk of chronic renal failure from any cause. The relative risks rose with increasing cumulative lifetime doses, rose more consistently with acetaminophen use than with aspirin use, and were increased for most disease-specific types of chronic renal failure. When we disregarded the recent use of analgesics, which could have occurred in response to antecedents of renal disease, the associations were only slightly attenuated CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the existence of exacerbating effects of acetaminophen and aspirin on chronic renal failure. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of bias due to the triggering of analgesic consumption by predisposing conditions.
Comment In: N Engl J Med. 2001 Dec 20;345(25):1844-611752364
Comment In: N Engl J Med. 2002 May 16;346(20):1588-9; author reply 1588-912015402
Comment In: N Engl J Med. 2002 May 16;346(20):1588-9; author reply 1588-912017163
Department of Pediatrics (Shulman, Guttmann), The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto; ICES (Shulman, Fu, Guttmann); Institute for Health Policy, Management and Evaluation (Shulman, Guttmann), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Faculty of Medicine (Knight, Chafe), Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Nfld. email@example.com.
Transition to adult diabetes care is a high-risk period for acute complications, yet the optimal transition care model is unknown. To gain insight into the impact on health outcomes of system-level transition processes that reflect resourcing differences, we examined acute complications in youth with diabetes across transition in 2 Canadian provinces with different transition care models.
We used linked provincial health administrative data for Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador to create 2 parallel cohorts of youth with diabetes diagnosed before age 15 years who turned 17 between 2006 and 2011. Participants were followed until 2015 (maximum age 21 yr). We described rates of and proportion of participants with at least 1 diabetes-related hospital admission at age 15-17 years and 18-20 years, standardized according to material deprivation based on the 2006 Canadian Marginalization Index. We compared diabetes-related admissions at age 15-17 years and 18-20 years in the Ontario cohort.
The cohorts consisted of 2525 youth in Ontario and 93 in Newfoundland and Labrador. In Newfoundland and Labrador, 39 participants (42.0%) were in the lowest socioeconomic quintile, versus 326 (12.9%) in Ontario. The standardized rate of diabetes-related hospital admissions per 100 person-years was 13.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.6-14.4) at age 15-17 years and 14.4 (95% CI 13.5-15.3) at age 18-20 years in Ontario, and 11.4 (95% CI 7.0-15.8) at age 15-17 years and 10.5 (95% CI 6.4-14.6) at age 18-20 years in Newfoundland and Labrador. In Ontario, there was no association between the rate (adjusted rate ratio 1.10, 95% CI 0.94-1.28) or occurrence (adjusted odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.91-1.17) of diabetes-related admissions across transition.
Although posttransition care is delivered differently in the 2 provinces, rates of adverse events across transition were stable in both. Coordinated support during transition is needed to help mitigate adverse events for young adults in both provinces. Delivery of other health care and social services, including primary care, may be influencing the risk of adverse events after transition to adult care.
* Non-adherence is probably an important source of preventable cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. * However, until now there have been very few large effectiveness studies assessing the relationship between adherence levels to antihypertensive medication and major cardiovascular outcomes for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
* The study results suggest that there is an association between better adherence to antihypertensive agents and a relative risk reduction of coronary artery disease. * Adherence to antihypertensive agents needs to be improved so that patients can benefit from the full protective effects of antihypertensive therapies.
Antihypertensive (AH) agents have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Previous surveys have shown that a substantial number of patients with diagnosed hypertension remain uncontrolled. Non-adherence to AH agents may reduce the effectiveness. The aim was to evaluate the impact of better adherence to AH agents on the occurrence of CAD in a real clinical setting.
The mean patient age was 65 years, 37% were male, 8% had diabetes and 18% had dyslipidaemia. High adherence level (96%) to AH therapy compared with lower adherence level (59%) was associated with a relative risk reduction of CAD events (rate ratios 0.90; 0.84, 0.95). Risk factors for CAD were male gender, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and developing a cardiovascular condition disease during follow-up.
Our study suggests that better adherence to AH agents is associated with a risk reduction of CAD. Adherence to AH agents needs to be improved so that patients can benefit from the full protective effects of AH therapies.
Cites: Am J Hypertens. 1997 Oct;10(10 Pt 1):1097-1029370379
To evaluate the relationship between antihypertensive (AH) drug adherence and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among patients with a recent ischemic stroke and assess the validity of our approach.
A cohort of 14,227 patients diagnosed with an ischemic stroke was assembled from individuals 65 years and older who were treated with AH agents from 1999 to 2007 in Quebec, Canada. A nested case-control design was used to evaluate the occurrence of nonfatal major CV outcomes and mortality. Each case was matched to 15 controls by age and cohort entry time. Medication possession ratio was used for AH agent adherence level. Adjusted conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the rate ratio of CV events. The validity of the approach was assessed by evaluating the adherence level of CV-protective and non-CV-protective drugs.
Mean age was 75 years, 54% were male, 38% had coronary artery disease, 23% had diabetes, 47% dyslipidemia, and 14% atrial fibrillation or flutter. High adherence to AH therapy was mirrored by similar adherence to statins and antiplatelet agents and was associated with a lower risk of nonfatal vascular events compared with lower adherence (rate ratio 0.77 [0.70-0.86]). We observed a paradoxic link between adherence to several drugs and all-cause mortality.
Adherence to AH agents is associated with adherence to other secondary preventive therapies and a risk reduction for nonfatal vascular events after an ischemic stroke. Overestimation of all-cause mortality reduction may be related to frailty and comorbidities, which may confound the apparent benefit of different drugs.
Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Intensified blood pressure control may slow progression of chronic kidney disease; however, the impact of antihypertensive agent adherence on the prevention of ESRD has never been evaluated. Here we assessed the impact of antihypertensive agent adherence on the risk of ESRD in 185,476 patients in the RAMQ databases age 45 to 85 and newly diagnosed/treated for hypertension between 1999 and 2007. A case cohort study design was used to assess the risk of and multivariate Cox proportional models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio of ESRD. Adherence level was reported as a medication possession ratio. Mean patient age was 63 years, 42.2% male, 14.0% diabetic, 30.3% dyslipidemic, and mean follow-up was 5.1 years. A high adherence level of 80% or more to antihypertensive agent(s) compared to a lower one was related to a risk reduction of ESRD (hazard ratio 0.67; 95% confidence intervals 0.54-0.83). Sensitivity analysis revealed that the effect is mainly in those without chronic kidney disease. Risk factors for ESRD were male, diabetes, peripheral artery disease, chronic heart failure, gout, previous chronic kidney disease, and use of more than one agent. Thus, our study suggests that a better adherence to antihypertensive agents is related to a risk reduction of ESRD and this adherence needs to be improved to optimize benefits.